Salmonella Infection (Salmonellosis) Medication

Updated: May 11, 2023
  • Author: Alena Klochko, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Medication Summary

The goals or pharmacotherapy are to eradicate infection, to reduce morbidity, and to prevent complications.



Class Summary

Empiric antimicrobial therapy must be comprehensive and should cover all likely pathogens in the context of the clinical setting.

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)

Fluoroquinolone with good activity against Salmonella and most aerobic gram-negative organisms, although resistance is gradually increasing. Poor activity against anaerobes and most gram-positive organisms. Inhibits bacterial DNA topoisomerases.

Azithromycin (Zithromax)

A macrolide antibiotic with enhanced gram-negative activity and a long half-life

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

Arrests bacterial growth by binding to one or more penicillin-binding proteins. A third-generation cephalosporin with broad-spectrum activity, although not a preferred anti-staphylococcal agent. Its gram-negative activity is limited against many multiresistant nosocomial organisms.

Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim DS, Septra)

Inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting synthesis of dihydrofolic acid. Antimicrobial activity of TMP-SMZ is broad and includes MRSA, most common UTI and diarrheal pathogens, toxoplasmosis, Isospora species, and Nocardia species, among many others.

Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin)

Binds to 50S bacterial-ribosomal subunits and inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting protein synthesis. Effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. PO formulation unavailable in the United States.