Salmonella Infection (Salmonellosis) Questions & Answers

Updated: Sep 13, 2018
  • Author: Alena Klochko, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are salmonellae?

How are Salmonella species classified?

How is salmonella typically transmitted?

What are less common ways salmonella is transmitted?

What is the infectious dose of salmonella?

What is the pathophysiology of salmonellosis?

What are the virulence factors for salmonellae?

What is the determining factors for the severity of salmonellosis?

What are comorbidities that predispose to salmonellosis?

What is the incidence of Salmonella infections in the US?

What caused the 2012 salmonellosis outbreak due to S infantis?

What caused the 2007 outbreak of salmonellosis?

What caused the 2008-2009 outbreak of salmonellosis?

Which patient groups are at highest risk for salmonellosis?

What is the global incidence of salmonellosis?

What is the mortality rate for salmonellosis?

How does bacteremia affect the mortality rate of salmonellosis?

What are the extraintestinal complications of salmonellosis?

How does multidrug-resistant typhoid fever affect the prognosis of salmonellosis in children?

What are the racial predilections for salmonellosis?

How does the incidence of salmonellosis vary by sex?

Which age groups are at highest risk for salmonellosis?

Presentation

Which syndromes are caused by Salmonella infections?

What is the clinical presentation of nontyphoidal enterocolitis in salmonellosis?

What is the incubation period for nontyphoidal enterocolitis in salmonellosis?

What are rare symptoms of nontyphoidal enterocolitis in salmonellosis?

What are the common symptoms of nontyphoidal enterocolitis in salmonellosis?

What is the presentation of nontyphoidal focal disease in salmonellosis?

What is the clinical course of typhoid fever in salmonellosis?

How frequently does typhoid fever in salmonellosis result in severe disease?

Why is a diagnosis of typhoid fever in salmonellosis missed in endemic regions?

What is the incubation period for typhoid fever in salmonellosis?

How does fever progress in salmonellosis?

What is the significance of bradycardia in salmonellosis?

What is the prevalence of rash in salmonellosis?

What are the common symptoms of typhoid fever in salmonellosis?

Which factors may affect the presentation of typhoid fever in salmonellosis?

Which factors increase the risk for urinary tract infections in salmonellosis?

What is the incidence of relapses of salmonellosis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of nontyphoidal gastroenteritis in salmonellosis?

Which physical findings suggest typhoid fever in salmonellosis?

Which conditions are accompany typhoid fever in salmonellosis?

What is a common and often severe symptom of salmonellosis?

Which GI findings suggest salmonellosis?

Which cardiac findings suggest typhoid fever in salmonellosis?

Which respiratory findings suggest typhoid fever in salmonellosis?

What are the most commonly isolated Salmonella strains causing salmonellosis?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Salmonella Infection (Salmonellosis)?

Workup

What is the accuracy of blood cultures in detecting salmonellosis?

What is the role of stool specimens in the diagnosis of salmonellosis?

What are the advantages of bone marrow aspirate and culture for the diagnosis of salmonellosis?

Which lab studies are used to diagnose salmonellosis?

How is the grouping of Salmonella isolates performed in the evaluation of salmonellosis?

What is the role of WBC count in the diagnosis of salmonellosis?

What is the role of eosinophil count and sedimentation rate in the diagnosis of salmonellosis?

What is the role of liver function testing in the evaluation of salmonellosis?

What is the role of radiography in the diagnosis of salmonellosis?

What is the role of CT scanning in the diagnosis of salmonellosis?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of salmonellosis?

What is the role of imaging studies in the evaluation of salmonellosis in patients older than 50 years?

What is the role of serological tests in the diagnosis of salmonellosis?

What is the role of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of salmonellosis?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for salmonellosis?

What is the role of quinolone therapy in the treatment of salmonellosis?

What is the role of chloramphenicol in the treatment of salmonellosis?

What are the concerns associated with the medical care of salmonellosis?

What is the role of azithromycin in the treatment of salmonellosis?

What is the role of gatifloxacin in the treatment of salmonellosis?

How is bacteremia managed in salmonellosis?

When is urgent surgical intervention indicated for the treatment of salmonellosis?

What is the role of ceftriaxone in the treatment of salmonellosis?

How is salmonellosis treated during pregnancy?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of salmonellosis?

When is cholecystectomy indicated in the treatment of salmonellosis?

When is splenectomy indicated in the treatment of salmonellosis?

What is the efficacy of surgery to treat endarteritis in patients with salmonellosis?

Which specialist consultations are needed during the treatment of salmonellosis?

Medications

What is the goal of drug treatment for salmonellosis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Salmonella Infection (Salmonellosis)?

Follow-up

How is salmonellosis prevented?

How is salmonella reduced in the food supply chain?

How can salmonella transmission from small turtles be prevented?

How can salmonella transmission from dry pet food be prevented?

What is the efficacy of hand washing for the prevention of salmonellosis?

What is the role of vaccines in the prevention of salmonellosis?

What is the prevalence of bacteremia in salmonellosis?

What are the cardiovascular complications of salmonellosis?

How are patients with salmonellosis and high risk of vascular infections identified?

What are the CNS complications of salmonellosis?

What are the pulmonary complications of salmonellosis?

What are the bone/joint complications of salmonellosis?

What are the GI complications of salmonellosis?

What are the hepatobiliary complications of salmonellosis?

What are the splenic complications of salmonellosis?

What are the soft tissue complications of salmonellosis?

What are the urinary complications of salmonellosis?

What are the genital complications of salmonellosis?

What is the duration of nontyphoidal salmonellosis last?

How often do patients with salmonellosis require hospitalization?

What is the duration of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms after symptom resolution in salmonellosis?

How is salmonellosis treated in the absence of risk factors for severe disease?

What is the prognosis of salmonellosis?

What is included in patient education about salmonellosis?