Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia) Questions & Answers

Updated: Sep 20, 2018
  • Author: Shadab Hussain Ahmed, MD, AAHIVS, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is schistosomiasis (bilharzia) and how common is it?

How was schistosomiasis (bilharzia) discovered?

What causes schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What are the intermediate hosts of Schistosoma?

Which populations are at risk for schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

Which age groups are likely to be infected with schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What are the possible complications of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is acute schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome)?

What is the prognosis of acute schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome)?

What are the symptoms of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the pathogenesis of chronic schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the disease progression of chronic schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the role of periportal fibrosis in the pathophysiology of chronic schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What are the possible complications of S haematobium schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the role of ectopic egg deposition in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

How is schistosomiasis transmitted?

What are the major forms of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the life cycle of Schistosoma species?

How do Schistosoma species migrate through the body?

What is the role of histocompatibility complexes and blood group antigens in the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the microscopic appearance of Schistosoma species eggs in the human body?

How do Schistosoma species infect a snail host?

What is the life cycle of Schistosoma japonicum?

What is the prevalence of schistosomiasis (bilharzia) in the US?

What is the global prevalence of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the geographical distribution of Schistosoma species?

What is the global prevalence of active schistosomiasis (bilharzia) infection?

What is the efficacy of enhanced community intervention for reducing the incidence of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

How does the incidence of schistosomiasis (bilharzia) vary by race?

How does the incidence of schistosomiasis (bilharzia) vary by sex?

How does the prevalence and severity of schistosomiasis (bilharzia) vary by age?

What is the prognosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the prognosis of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis?

What is the prognosis of patients with end-stage complications of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis?

What is the prognosis of spinal cord schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What may increase the risk of mortality in schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

Which patients with schistosomiasis (bilharzia) have a poor prognosis?

What is the mortality rate of acute schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome)?

What are the possible complications of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

Which factors increase the mortality rate of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

Which factors increase the risk of schistosomiasis (bilharzia) reinfection?

What are the symptoms of acute schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome)?

What are the symptoms of chronic schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What complications may occur in GI schistosomiasis?

What are the possible complications of urinary tract schistosomiasis?

What are the possible complications of genital schistosomiasis in females?

What is the prevalence of comorbid sexually transmitted diseases and urogenital schistosomiasis?

What is the prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the prevalence of CNS schistosomiasis?

What are the complications of schistosomiasis (bilharzia) during pregnancy?

Presentation

What are acute manifestations of schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome)?

How is acute schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome) differentiated from malaria?

What should be the focus of the history in suspected acute schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome)?

What history is needed to diagnose suspected chronic schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What are the possible manifestations of chronic schistosomiasis?

What are the signs and symptoms of hepatic schistosomiasis?

What are the symptoms of intestinal schistosomiasis?

What are the symptoms of urinary schistosomiasis?

What are the symptoms of cardiopulmonary schistosomiasis?

What are the symptoms of CNS schistosomiasis?

What are the symptoms of cerebellar schistosomiasis?

What are the symptoms of female genital schistosomiasis?

What factors affect the variance of physical findings in schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

Which physical findings suggest acute schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome)?

Which physical findings suggest chronic schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

DDX

Which differential diagnoses might be suggested by hematuria in the evaluation of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

Which differential diagnoses might be suggested by intestinal and liver symptoms in the evaluation of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

Which differential diagnoses might be suggested by seizures and focal neurologic symptoms in the evaluation of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What conditions should be considered in the differential diagnoses of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia)?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What does a finding of eosinophilia indicate in the workup of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the role of urinary microbiology in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the role of fecal microbiology in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

How are single and mixed schistosomiasis (bilharzia) species identified?

What is the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

How is a stool or urinary analysis performed in the evaluation of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

How is the intensity of infection determined in the evaluation of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the role of an egg viability test in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

How is viability testing performed for schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

How is urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) diagnosed?

How is intestinal and liver schistosomiasis (bilharzia) diagnosed?

What are the limitations of antibody testing in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the role of serologic testing in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA tests in the diagnosis schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What are expected antibody test results during acute schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome)?

What is the role of antigen tests in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

Which antigen tests appear most promising for in diagnosing schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What could antigen titers reveal in the evaluation of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the role of ultrasonography (US) in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the role of cardiovascular testing in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the role of chest radiography in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the role of CT scanning and MRI in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

Which chest radiograph findings suggest acute schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis?

What is the role of imaging tests in the diagnosis of liver and intestinal schistosomiasis?

What is the role of imaging tests in the diagnosis of lung schistosomiasis?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of CNS schistosomiasis?

What is the role of biopsy in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

Which procedures are used in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

Treatment

What is prehospital care for schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

How should urine or stool samples be evaluated for schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

When is inpatient care indicated for treatment of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the treatment for acute schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome)?

What is the role of praziquantel in the treatment of acute schistosomiasis (Katayama syndrome)?

What is the treatment for CNS schistosomiasis?

What are the surgical options for schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

Which specialist consultations are needed for the treatment of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What is the indication for corticosteroids in the treatment of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

How is response to treatment evaluated in schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

What monitoring is needed following treatment of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

How does schistosomiasis (bilharzia) affect pregnancy?

What is the efficacy of treatment for schistosomiasis (bilharzia) during pregnancy?

Is a vaccine available for schistosomiasis (bilharzia)?

How can schistosomiasis (bilharzia) be prevented?

How is schistosomiasis (bilharzia) controlled in an endemic area?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment in schistosomiasis (bilharzia), and what is the medication of choice?

Which medications in the drug class Anthelmintics are used in the treatment of Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia)?