Tetanus Questions & Answers

Updated: Aug 10, 2018
  • Author: Patrick B Hinfey, MD; Chief Editor: John L Brusch, MD, FACP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are the signs and symptoms of tetanus (lockjaw)?

How is tetanus (lockjaw) categorized?

What is the disease progression of generalized tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the presentation of localized tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the presentation of cephalic tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are the signs and symptoms of neonatal tetanus (lockjaw)?

How can tetanus (lockjaw) be managed?

Which bacteria spores causes tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the role of toxins in the pathogenesis of tetanus (lockjaw)?

How are the different types of tetanus (lockjaw) transmitted?

How long may tetanus (lockjaw) spores survive?

What is the source of infection in tetanus (lockjaw)?

In which conditions can tetanus (lockjaw) develop as a complication?

What is an important cause of tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are the risk factors for tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are the global risk factors for neonatal tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the prevalence of immunity from tetanus (lockjaw) in the US?

What is the incidence of tetanus (lockjaw) in the US?

What is the global incidence of tetanus (lockjaw)?

How does the incidence of tetanus (lockjaw) vary by age?

How does the incidence of tetanus (lockjaw) vary by sex?

How does the incidence of tetanus (lockjaw) vary by race?

What is the prognosis of tetanus (lockjaw)?

How is the severity of tetanus (lockjaw) assessed?

What is the mortality rate for tetanus (lockjaw)?

Which factors increase the risk of mortality in tetanus (lockjaw)?

Which factors decrease the severity of clinical tetanus (lockjaw)?

What causes mortality in tetanus (lockjaw)?

What education about tetanus (lockjaw) should patients and healthcare providers receive?

Presentation

What immunization history is likely in suspected tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the incubation period for tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are the signs and symptoms of tetanus (lockjaw)?

How is dysphagia characterized in tetanus (lockjaw), and what are related symptoms?

What is risus sardonicus in tetanus (lockjaw)?

What history findings suggest generalized tetanus (lockjaw)?

What history findings suggest localized tetanus (lockjaw)?

What history findings suggest cephalic tetanus (lockjaw)?

What history findings suggest neonatal tetanus (tetanus neonatorum)?

What are the initial signs of tetanus (lockjaw)?

How is severe tetanus (lockjaw) characterized?

What are the most prevalent sites of antecedent injury in tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are tetanic seizures and how are they characterized in tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are the GI symptoms of tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are the ANS symptoms of tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are the physical findings suggestive of generalized tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are the physical findings suggestive of localized tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are the physical findings suggestive of cephalic tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are the physical findings suggestive of neonatal tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are possible respiratory complications of tetanus (lockjaw)?

What causes tetanus (lockjaw)-related death in the ICU?

How is tetanus-related sympathetic hyperactivity treated?

What are possible complications of neonatal tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the leading cause of death in tetanus (lockjaw)?

Which nosocomial infections may occur in tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are possible complications of tetanus (lockjaw)?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Tetanus?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of tetanus (lockjaw)?

Which lab findings suggest tetanus (lockjaw)?

Which lab finding makes a diagnosis of tetanus (lockjaw) less likely?

How should wounds be cultured in the workup of tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the indication for a spatula test in the workup of tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the role of EMG in the diagnosis of tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the role of ECG in the diagnosis of tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of tetanus (lockjaw)?

Treatment

What are the goals for treatment of tetanus (lockjaw)?

Where should patients with tetanus (lockjaw) be treated?

What shortens the course and lessens severity of tetanus (lockjaw)?

When is ICU admission indicated for the treatment of tetanus (lockjaw)?

When is prophylactic intubation indicated in the treatment of tetanus (lockjaw)?

When is tracheostomy indicated in the treatment of tetanus (lockjaw)?

Which wounds are most susceptible to tetanus (lockjaw)?

When is surgical debridement indicated for the treatment of tetanus (lockjaw)?

Which antimicrobials are used in the treatment of tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the role of tetanus immune globulin (TIG) in the treatment of tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are the options for symptomatic therapy of tetanus (lockjaw)?

How are spasms prevented during the treatment of tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the role of baclofen in the treatment of tetanus (lockjaw)?

How are complications managed in tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the role of magnesium sulfate in the treatment of patients with tetanus (lockjaw)?

Which medications are used for the management of complications in tetanus (lockjaw)?

How are complications of tetanus (lockjaw) treated?

How is nutrition provided during treatment of tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are activity restrictions during the treatment of tetanus (lockjaw)?

Which specialist consultations may be needed for the treatment of tetanus (lockjaw)?

How is tetanus (lockjaw) prevented?

What is secondary prevention of tetanus (lockjaw)?

Which wounds are susceptible to tetanus (lockjaw)?

What is the interval between vaccinations for the prevention of tetanus (lockjaw)?

When should patients with tetanus (lockjaw)-prone wounds receive vaccinations?

How should immunization status against tetanus (lockjaw) be assessed in the ED?

What are the ACIP recommendations for vaccination against tetanus (lockjaw)?

What are the ACIP recommendations for the use of Tdap for the prevention of tetanus (lockjaw)?

How can neonatal tetanus (lockjaw) be globally eliminated?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for tetanus (lockjaw)?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics, Other are used in the treatment of Tetanus?

Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsants are used in the treatment of Tetanus?

Which medications in the drug class Skeletal Muscle Relaxants are used in the treatment of Tetanus?

Which medications in the drug class General Anesthetics, Systemic are used in the treatment of Tetanus?

Which medications in the drug class Immune Globulins are used in the treatment of Tetanus?

Which medications in the drug class Neuromuscular Blocking Agents are used in the treatment of Tetanus?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines, Inactivated, Bacterial are used in the treatment of Tetanus?