Toxoplasmosis Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Dec 20, 2022
  • Author: Murat Hökelek, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

Conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis include rubella, encephalopathies, and erythroblastosis fetalis. In the differential diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis, vasculitis and tumor should be considered. The major differential diagnosis of focal CNS lesions in patients with AIDS is CNS lymphoma, which manifests as multiple enhancing lesions in 40% of cases. An increasing number of associations are being established between various medical conditions and toxoplasmosis. [54]

Other differentials in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include the following:

  • Other lesions caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Nocardia species

  • Mycosis fungoides

  • Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci pneumonia

  • Sarcoidosis

  • Bacterial sepsis

  • Syphilis

  • Tuberculosis

  • Tularemia

  • Acute HIV infection

  • Cytomegalovirus retinitis

  • Cytomegalovirus encephalitis

  • Cytomegalovirus ventriculitis

  • CNS tuberculosis

  • Disseminated tuberculosis

  • Leukemia

  • Lymphoma

  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

  • Acute retinal necrosis

  • Fungal endophthalmitis

  • Epimacular membrane

  • Intraocular foreign body

  • Uveitic glaucoma

  • Ocular manifestations of HIV

  • Ocular manifestations of syphilis

  • Anterior granulomatous uveitis

  • Anterior nongranulomatous uveitis

  • Fuchs heterochromic uveitis

  • Toxocariasis

  • Primary intraocular lymphoma

  • Pars planitis

Differential Diagnoses