Toxoplasmosis Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 08, 2019
  • Author: Murat Hökelek, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is toxoplasmosis?

How was toxoplasmosis discovered?

What are the major genotypes of Toxoplasma (T) gondii?

Which groups are at highest risk for toxoplasmosis?

In which groups is toxoplasmosis asymptomatic?

How can the risk for congenital toxoplasmosis be reduced?

What is the life cycle for Toxoplasma (T) gondii?

How long do Toxoplasma (T) gondii oocysts remain infectious?

How is Toxoplasma (T) gondii infection transmitted?

How does the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma (T) gondii antibodies vary geographically?

What is the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the immune response to Toxoplasma (T) gondii infections?

What is the role of tissue cysts in the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the role of T-lymphocyte levels in the pathogenesis toxoplasmosis?

What causes retinochoroiditis in toxoplasmosis?

What is the inflammatory process of ocular toxoplasmosis?

What is the pathogenesis of ocular toxoplasmosis?

Which genotypic manifestations are associated with recurrence of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis?

What are the signs and symptoms of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy?

How do the risks of toxoplasmosis vary during each trimester of pregnancy?

What is the most significant manifestation of toxoplasmosis in the fetus?

What is the pathogenesis of congenital toxoplasmosis?

What is the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis in patients with HIV infection?

What is the presentation of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients?

What are the possible comorbidities of toxoplasmosis?

What is the incidence of toxoplasmosis in the US?

What are seropositivity rates of toxoplasmosis in the US?

What is the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the US?

What is the prevalence of intraocular toxoplasmosis in the US?

What is the prevalence of toxoplasmosis encephalitis in patients with HIV and AIDS in the US?

What are the global seropositivity rates of toxoplasmosis?

What is the global incidence of primary toxoplasmosis during pregnancy?

What factor increases the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in some regions?

What is the global prevalence of toxoplasmosis encephalitis in patients with AIDS?

How does the prevalence of toxoplasmosis vary by age?

What is the prognosis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the prognosis of toxoplasmosis in immunodeficient patients?

What are possible complications of congenital toxoplasmosis?

What is the prognosis of toxoplasmosis encephalitis?

How frequently is toxoplasmosis the cause of posterior uveitis?

How common is retinochoroiditis as a manifestation of toxoplasmosis?

What is the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of ocular toxoplasmosis?

Which ocular complication of toxoplasmosis results from obstruction of the outflow channels?

What causes pharmacologically nonresponsive glaucoma secondary to toxoplasmosis?

What are less common ocular complications of toxoplasmosis?

What is the frequency of symptoms in acute toxoplasmosis?

Which type of toxoplasmosis accounts for most acute and fatal infections?

In which patient group is toxoplasmosis likely to progress rapidly?

Which therapies have led to a decrease in central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis?

Presentation

How frequently is toxoplasmosis symptomatic?

What are the signs and symptoms of acute toxoplasmosis?

What are the signs and symptoms of acute toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised hosts?

What is the most common manifestation of toxoplasmosis in individuals with AIDS?

Which clinical findings suggest toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS?

What are the presentations of toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS?

Which symptoms suggest brainstem involvement in comorbid toxoplasmosis and AIDS?

What are less common presentations of toxoplasmosis in persons with AIDS?

Which neuropsychiatric findings suggest toxoplasmosis in persons with AIDS?

What are the signs and symptoms of diffuse toxoplasmosis encephalitis in persons with AIDS?

Which findings suggest spinal cord involvement in comorbid toxoplasmosis and AIDS?

What is pulmonary toxoplasmosis?

What is the prevalence of extrapulmonary toxoplasmosis in persons with toxoplasmosis pneumonitis?

What are characteristics of ocular toxoplasmosis in persons with AIDS?

What are less common symptoms of toxoplasmosis in persons with AIDS?

What are the signs and symptoms of congenital toxoplasmosis?

What is the presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis?

What are some symptoms of ocular toxoplasmosis?

What are symptoms of toxoplasmosis?

What is the most common presentation of acute toxoplasmosis?

Which ophthalmologic findings are characteristic of toxoplasmosis?

Which finding suggests a flare-up of congenitally acquired ocular toxoplasmosis?

What are symptoms of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis?

Which physical findings suggest toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS?

Which findings suggest ocular involvement patients with toxoplasmosis who have AIDS?

Which physical findings are characteristic of congenital toxoplasmosis?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis?

What conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

What are the differential diagnoses for Toxoplasmosis?

Workup

What is the role of basic lab studies in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

How is the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis confirmed?

What is the role of molecular testing in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the role of PCR in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

How is a PCR assay performed in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the role of indirect detection for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

Which diagnostic procedures are performed during the evaluation of toxoplasmosis?

How are acute and chronic toxoplasmosis differentiated?

How is toxoplasmosis diagnosed during pregnancy?

What is the role of antitoxoplasmic antibody testing in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the role of immunoglobulin testing in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the role of the Sabin-Feldman dye test in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the role of indirect fluorescent antibody testing in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the role of indirect hemagglutination testing in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the role of ELISA testing in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the role of immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity testing in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the role of CT scanning in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

Which CT scan findings are characteristic of toxoplasmic encephalitis?

What is the role of SPECT scanning in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the role of nuclear scanning in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

What is the appearance of toxoplasmosis encephalitis on MRI?

When is MRI scanning indicated in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis?

How is MRI scanning used to differentiate focal central nervous system (CNS) lesions from toxoplasmic encephalitis?

How long do toxoplasmic encephalitis CT scanning and MRI abnormalities persist?

What is the relationship between the radiologic response and the clinical response to toxoplasmosis treatment?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of congenital toxoplasmosis?

Is histology used in the workup of toxoplasmosis?

What are the histological findings characteristic of acute toxoplasmosis?

What are the histologic findings characteristic of chronic toxoplasmosis?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for toxoplasmosis?

When is inpatient care indicated for toxoplasmosis?

What is the treatment approach to toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS?

What are the recommended specialist consultations for the treatment of toxoplasmosis?

How frequently should patients be seen during treatment for toxoplasmosis?

What is the recommended activity level for patients with toxoplasmosis?

What is included in emergency department assessment of toxoplasmosis?

When should treatment of toxoplasmosis be initiated in the ED?

How is toxoplasmosis prevented?

What factor increases the risk of contracting toxoplasmosis?

What precautions against toxoplasmosis are needed during blood transfusions?

How is toxoplasmosis transmitted to lab workers?

Medications

What is the most effective medication for the treatment of toxoplasmosis?

What are the alternatives to pyrimethamine in the treatment of toxoplasmosis?

What combination therapies are used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis?

What is included in the 6-week treatment regimen for toxoplasmosis in nonpregnant patients?

What are alternative medications for treatment of toxoplasmosis?

What are the treatment options for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy?

What is the treatment dosing regimen for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy?

Which medications are used in the treatment of toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS?

How is retinitis treated in patients with toxoplasmosis?

Which medications in the drug class Cycloplegics/Mydriatics are used in the treatment of Toxoplasmosis?

Which medications in the drug class Antidotes are used in the treatment of Toxoplasmosis?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Toxoplasmosis?

Which medications in the drug class Macrolides are used in the treatment of Toxoplasmosis?

Which medications in the drug class Antiprotozoal Agents are used in the treatment of Toxoplasmosis?

Which medications in the drug class Lincosamide Antimicrobials are used in the treatment of Toxoplasmosis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics, Other are used in the treatment of Toxoplasmosis?

Which medications in the drug class Sulfonamide are used in the treatment of Toxoplasmosis?