Yellow Fever Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Jun 26, 2015
  • Author: Mary T Busowski, MD; Chief Editor: Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

Based on its clinical presentation, yellow fever may be mistaken for other infectious diseases present in tropical regions; however, failure to consider this illness in a febrile traveler could have a grave outcome. Conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis of yellow fever include the following:

  • Hemorrhagic fevers (dengue hemorrhagic, Rift Valley, Venezuelan, Bolivian, Argentine, Lassa, Crimean-Congo, Marburg, and Ebola fevers)

  • Hepatitis E

  • Arenavirus infection: Lassa fever, South American viral hemorrhagic fevers

  • Bunyavirus infection: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

  • Ebola virus infection

  • Louse-borne relapsing fever

  • Other flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus

  • Sepsis/multiorgan system dysfunction

  • Viral encephalitides, such as Japanese encephalitis

  • Liver failure (other causes)

  • Toxic hepatitis

  • Toxin-mediated hepatitis

  • Other viral hemorrhagic fevers

  • Other flaviviruses

Differential Diagnoses