Yellow Fever Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Jun 26, 2015
  • Author: Mary T Busowski, MD; Chief Editor: Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

Based on its clinical presentation, yellow fever may be mistaken for other infectious diseases present in tropical regions; however, failure to consider this illness in a febrile traveler could have a grave outcome. Conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis of yellow fever include the following:

  • Hemorrhagic fevers (dengue hemorrhagic, Rift Valley, Venezuelan, Bolivian, Argentine, Lassa, Crimean-Congo, Marburg, and Ebola fevers)
  • Hepatitis E
  • Arenavirus infection: Lassa fever, South American viral hemorrhagic fevers
  • Bunyavirus infection: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
  • Ebola virus infection
  • Louse-borne relapsing fever
  • Other flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus
  • Sepsis/multiorgan system dysfunction
  • Viral encephalitides, such as Japanese encephalitis
  • Liver failure (other causes)
  • Toxic hepatitis
  • Toxin-mediated hepatitis
  • Other viral hemorrhagic fevers
  • Other flaviviruses

Differential Diagnoses