Japanese Encephalitis Medication

Updated: Apr 06, 2023
  • Author: Antonette B Climaco, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Medication Summary

No effective antiviral exists. Mannitol is used to decrease intracranial pressure, when needed.

There are 4 classes of Japanese encephalitis vaccines. Ixiaro is the Japanese encephalitis vaccine available in the United States.


Osmotic Diuretics

Class Summary

Mannitol is recommended by some experts to help reduce intracranial pressure. Mannitol induces diuresis, which increases serum osmotic concentration. In the brain, this causes water to flow from brain cells into vascular space, thereby decreasing intracranial pressure.

Mannitol (Osmitrol)

Mannitol may be used to decrease intracranial pressure. It may reduce subarachnoid space pressure by creating an osmotic gradient between CSF in the arachnoid space and plasma. This agent is not for long-term use.



Class Summary

Induction of the antibody response to vaccine provides the capability to neutralize live Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). [45]

Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine (Ixiaro)

Ixiaro is an inactivated vaccine prepared by propagating Japanese encephalitis virus strain SA14-14-2 in Vero cells. It is available in prefilled, single-dose syringes without preservatives or thimerosal. Antibody response is measured with a 50% plaque-reduction neutralization antibody test; a threshold of 1:10 or higher is considered protective immunity.

It is the only currently available Japanese encephalitis vaccine in the United States.