Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Medication

Updated: Apr 15, 2016
  • Author: Robert W Derlet, MD; Chief Editor: Burke A Cunha, MD  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

No specific medications are approved for treatment of Venezuelan equine encephalitis. In vitro laboratory studies suggest ribavirin and other nucleoside analogues may be appropriate, but these have not been used clinically in humans.

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Anticonvulsants

Class Summary

These agents are used to prevent seizure recurrence and to terminate clinical and electrical seizure activity.

Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek)

Phenytoin is used for seizures. It may act in the motor cortex, where it may inhibit the spread of seizure activity. The activity of brain stem centers responsible for the tonic phase of grand mal seizures may also be inhibited. The dose should be individualized. Administer a larger dose before retiring if the dose cannot be divided equally.

Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Carbatrol, Epitol, Equetro)

This is used for seizures. It is indicated for complex partial seizures and trigeminal neuralgia. Carbamazepine may block posttetanic potentiation by reducing the summation of temporal stimulation. Following a therapeutic response, the drug dose may be reduced to its minimum effective level or treatment may be discontinued at least once every 3 months.

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Antipyretics

Class Summary

These agents are helpful in relieving the associated lethargy, malaise, and fever associated with the disease.

Acetaminophen (Acephen, Feverall, Tylenol)

Acetaminophen inhibits the action of endogenous pyrogens on heat-regulating centers and reduces fever by a direct action on the hypothalamic heat-regulating centers, which, in turn, increases the dissipation of body heat via sweating and vasodilation.

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