Rheumatic Fever Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 23, 2021
  • Author: Mark R Wallace, MD, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the role of group A streptococci (GAS) in the pathogenesis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the pathophysiology of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) in the US?

What is the global incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the cardiac complications and mortality rate of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

How does the prevalence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) vary by race?

How does the prevalence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) vary by age?

Presentation

How does acute rheumatic fever (ARF) manifest?

How prevalent are respiratory symptoms in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the features of arthritis in patients with acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the symptoms of carditis in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the prevalence of Sydenham chorea in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the symptoms of erythema marginatum in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the symptoms of subcutaneous nodules in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the signs and symptoms that suggest acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are physical findings of subcutaneous nodules in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the physical findings of arthritis in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the physical findings of carditis in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the physical findings of acute carditis in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the symptoms of congestive heart failure (CHF) in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the symptoms of pericarditis in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are echocardiographic findings suggestive of carditis in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are physical exam findings of erythema marginatum in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are physical findings of Sydenham chorea in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the duration of untreated acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and chronic rheumatic fever?

Which infections may lead to acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

How does group A streptococcal infection cause acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Rheumatic Fever?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the indication for a throat culture in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

Which antibody titer tests are performed in the workup of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What does a finding of acute and convalescent sera suggest in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the limitations of antibody testing in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

Which lab tests are useful in monitoring disease activity in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the role of blood cultures in the workup of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the role of chest radiography in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the role of echocardiography in the workup of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

How effective is echocardiography in detecting carditis in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are possible echocardiography findings in rheumatic heart disease?

What is the most common finding on an electrocardiography for acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

Which lab tests may be useful in narrowing the differential diagnoses in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the role of arthrocentesis in the evaluation of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the pathologic characterization of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the expected histologic findings of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the challenges to diagnosing acute rheumatic fever (ARF) correctly?

What are the Jones criteria for diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

Treatment

What are the approaches to the treatment of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

How does treatment of group A streptococcal infection affect outcomes for acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the treatment options for acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the treatment options for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) with cardiac involvement?

What is the role of penicillin prophylaxis in the management of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the indication for surgery in acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

Which specialists should be consulted in the treatment of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the dietary recommendations for acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the activity restrictions in the treatment of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

Follow-up

What monitoring is needed following initial treatment of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

When is inpatient care indicated for acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What medications are used in the treatment of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the primary and secondary prophylaxis for acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the immediate complications of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What are the long-term sequelae of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What factors have led to improved prognosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What is the prognosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF)?

What education about acute rheumatic fever (ARF) should patients receive?

Medications

Which medications in the drug class Anti-inflammatory agents are used in the treatment of Rheumatic Fever?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Rheumatic Fever?

Which medications in the drug class NSAIDs are used in the treatment of Rheumatic Fever?