Dirofilariasis Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Apr 15, 2018
  • Author: Alena Klochko, MD; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran Chandrasekar, MBBS, MD  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

Conditions in the differential diagnosis of dirofilariasis include the following:

  • Pulmonary metastasis

  • Mycotic infections of the lung

  • Caseous granulomas of the lung

  • Eosinophilic meningitis

  • Conjunctivitis

  • Nonspecific subcutaneous nodule

  • Lipoma or other benign subcutaneous tumour

  • Infected subcutaneous cyst/adnexal or abscess

  • Sparganosis

  • Breast carcinoma (in adults)

  • Inguinal hernia

  • Testicular tumor

  • Primary carcinoma of the lung (in adults)

  • Tuberculosis

  • Wegener granulomatosis

  • Atypical mycobacterial infection

  • Bancroftian filariasis

  • Blastomycosis

  • Chronic granulomatous disease

  • Coccidioidomycosis

  • Cutaneous larva migrans

  • Cystic adenomatoid malformation

  • Histiocytosis

  • Lymphoproliferative disorders

  • Paragonimiasis

  • Pulmonary infarction

  • Thromboembolism

  • Benign lung tumors

  • Mycosis fungoides

  • Nodular scleritis [70]

The diagnosis of dirofilariasis is easy to miss because of the infrequency of cases throughout the world and, specifically, in the Western Hemisphere. For example, breast nodules due to D repens are commonly misdiagnosed as potential tumorous masses and are observed in people in hyperendemic areas for the parasite, usually Italy and Sri Lanka.

Human pulmonary dirofilariasis (HPD) almost invariably raises initial radiologic concern of a primary or metastatic lung tumor, which usually leads to thoracotomy with open lung biopsy or wedge resection of the lung to obtain the correct diagnosis.

Differential Diagnoses