Proteinuria Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 25, 2020
  • Author: Beje Thomas, MD; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is proteinuria?

How is proteinuria differentiated?

How is proteinuria classified?

What is tubular proteinuria?

What causes tubular proteinuria?

What is overflow proteinuria?

What is glomerular proteinuria?

What is transient proteinuria?

What is orthostatic proteinuria?

Which lab findings suggest glomerular damage in patients with proteinuria?

What are isolated and post-renal proteinuria?

What is post-transplant proteinuria?

What is the physiology of proteinuria?

What are the complications of proteinuria?

What is the pathophysiology of proteinuria?

What is the role of podocytes in the pathophysiology of proteinuria?

What is the role of glomerular capillaries in the pathophysiology of proteinuria?

What is the role of mesangial cells in the pathophysiology of proteinuria?

What is the role of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in the pathophysiology of proteinuria?

What causes proteinuria?

Which glomerular diseases cause proteinuria?

Which primary glomerular diseases are associated with active urine sediment?

Which primary glomerular diseases are associated with bland urine sediment?

Which secondary glomerular diseases are associated with active urine sediment?

Which secondary glomerular diseases are associated with bland urine sediment?

What causes secondary focal glomerulosclerosis?

How is membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) classified?

What are non- glomerular causes of proteinuria?

What is the prevalence of proteinuria in the US?

What is the racial variation in proteinuria?

How does the prevalence of proteinuria vary by sex and age?

What is the prognosis of proteinuria?

How does proteinuria affect cardiovascular outcomes?

What is the significance of vascular calcification in patients with proteinuria?

How does proteinuria affect the risk for stroke?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of mild to moderate proteinuria?

What should be the focus of history for the evaluation of proteinuria?

Which physical findings indicate proteinuria?

What are the complications of proteinuria?

DDX

What is included in a diagnosis algorithm for proteinuria?

Workup

What are the options for detection of proteinuria?

What is the role of urine dipstick and sulfosalicylic acid test (SSA) in the diagnosis of proteinuria?

What is the gold standard for quantification of proteinuria?

What is the role of lab studies in the workup of proteinuria?

Which lab studies are performed in the diagnosis of orthostatic proteinuria?

Which lab studies are performed in the diagnosis of glomerular proteinuria?

Which techniques are used to determine the prognosis of glomerular proteinuria?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of proteinuria?

What is the role of renal biopsy in the workup of proteinuria?

Treatment

What is included in the medical management of proteinuria?

When is consultation with a nephrologist indicated in the treatment of proteinuria?

How is the risk for infection managed during the treatment of proteinuria?

What is included in patient monitoring during treatment for proteinuria?

What is the role of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in the management of proteinuria?

What is the role of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in the treatment of proteinuria?

What is the role of immunosuppressants in the treatment of proteinuria?

What is the role of diuretics in the management of proteinuria?

What is the role of anticoagulants in the management of proteinuria?

What is the role of calcium channel blockers in the management of proteinuria?

What is the role of endothelin antagonists in the management of proteinuria?

What is the role of vitamin D in the management of proteinuria?

How are lipid abnormalities resulting from proteinuria managed?

What is the role of sodium restriction in the treatment of proteinuria?

What is the role of protein restriction in the treatment of proteinuria?

Medications

Which medications are used for the treatment of proteinuria?

Which medications in the drug class Calcium Channel Antagonists are used in the treatment of Proteinuria?

Which medications in the drug class Aldosterone Antagonists, Selective are used in the treatment of Proteinuria?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics, Thiazide are used in the treatment of Proteinuria?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics, Loop are used in the treatment of Proteinuria?

Which medications in the drug class Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists (ARBs) are used in the treatment of Proteinuria?

Which medications in the drug class ACE Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Proteinuria?