Azotemia Questions & Answers

Updated: Sep 19, 2018
  • Author: Moro O Salifu, MD, MPH, FACP; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is azotemia?

How is renal function assessed in patients with azotemia?

How is creatinine clearance (CrCl) calculated in patients with azotemia?

What is the MDRD formula for measuring kidney function in azotemia?

What are the pathophysiologic states in azotemia?

What is the pathophysiology of prerenal azotemia?

What is the pathophysiology of intrarenal azotemia?

What is the role of acute interstitial nephritis in the pathophysiology of azotemia?

What is the role of glomerular diseases in the pathophysiology of azotemia?

What is the role of nephrotic syndrome in the pathophysiology of azotemia?

What is the role of acute vascular diseases in the pathophysiology of azotemia?

What is the role of renal artery stenosis in the pathophysiology of azotemia?

What is the role of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the pathogenesis of azotemia?

What is the pathophysiology of postrenal azotemia?

What causes azotemia?

What is the prevalence of azotemia in the US?

What is the global prevalence of azotemia?

In which patient groups is the prevalence of azotemia highest?

What is the prognosis of azotemia?

Presentation

How is azotemia diagnosed?

What are the signs and symptoms of prerenal azotemia?

What are the signs and symptoms of intrarenal azotemia?

What are the signs and symptoms of postrenal azotemia?

Which physical findings are characteristic of azotemia?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of azotemia?

What are the differential diagnoses for Azotemia?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the workup of azotemia?

Which lab studies are performed in the evaluation of prerenal azotemia?

Which lab studies are performed in the evaluation of intrarenal azotemia?

Which lab studies are performed in the evaluation of postrenal azotemia?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of azotemia?

What is the role of computer tomography (CT) in the workup of azotemia?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of azotemia?

What is the role of abdominal radiography in the workup of azotemia?

What is the role of IV pyelography (IVP) in the workup of azotemia?

What is the role of retrograde or anterograde pyelography in the workup of azotemia?

What is the role of renal arteriography in the workup of azotemia?

What is the role of renal venography in the workup of azotemia?

What is the role of radionuclide studies in the workup of azotemia?

What is the role of renal biopsy in the workup of azotemia?

What are the complications of renal biopsy in the workup of azotemia?

What are contraindications for renal biopsy in the workup of azotemia?

Treatment

How is volume depletion managed in prerenal azotemia?

What is included in supportive therapies for prerenal azotemia?

How are ischemic or nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis (ATN) managed in intrarenal azotemia?

What is the role of albumin in the management of acute renal failure in intrarenal azotemia?

What is included in supportive care during the recovery phase from acute renal failure in azotemia?

How is acute interstitial nephritis managed in intrarenal azotemia?

How is contrast-induced azotemia treated?

How is chronic kidney disease, managed in intrarenal azotemia?

What is included in the treatment of postrenal azotemia?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of azotemia?

Medications

What are the goals of therapy for azotemia?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Azotemia?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Azotemia?

Which medications in the drug class Volume Expanders are used in the treatment of Azotemia?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics, Other are used in the treatment of Azotemia?