Hypercalcemia Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 03, 2018
  • Author: Mahendra Agraharkar, MD, MBBS, FACP, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What causes hypercalcemia?

Which factors determine the severity of symptoms of hypercalcemia?

What are the central nervous system (CNS) signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?

What are the renal signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?

What are the GI signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?

What are the cardiac signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?

How is hypercalcemia classified?

How is the cause of hypercalcemia identified?

What is the treatment of hypercalcemia?

What is the pathophysiology of hypercalcemia?

What are the intracellular and extracellular concentrations of calcium in the human body?

What are the forms of calcium in plasma?

Do intracellular stores of calcium have a role in plasma calcium homeostasis?

What is a normal serum calcium level and how is hypercalcemia classified?

What is the role of exchangeable calcium in the pathogenesis of hypercalcemia?

What calculations or corrections are required to adjust for abnormal albumin levels in hypercalcemia?

How are mild cases of hypercalcemia diagnosed?

Which two mechanisms control calcium?

What is the role of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in the pathogenesis of hypercalcemia?

What is the etiology of hypercalcemia?

What are the causes of hypercalcemia due to malignancy?

What are the causes of hypercalcemia due to the parathyroid?

What are the causes of hypercalcemia due to vitamin D?

What are the causes of hypercalcemia due to high bone turnover?

What are the less common causes of hypercalcemia?

What is the prevalence of hypercalcemia by tumor type in the US?

What is the global prevalence of hypercalcemia?

What is the morbidity and mortality of hypercalcemia caused by hyperparathyroidism?

What is the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism in patients with hypercalcemia?

What is the role of PTH-related protein (PTHrP) in the etiology of hypercalcemia?

What is the morbidity and mortality of hypercalcemia in patients with PTH-related protein (PTHrP) production or osteolytic metastases?

How does the underlying cause of hypercalcemia affect morbidity and mortality?

Are there sex-related variances in the incidence of hypercalcemia?

Does the prevalence of hypercalcemia vary among age groups?

What is the prognosis of cancer-related hypercalcemia?

Does hypercalcemia increase mortality rates in patients with cancer?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?

What is the typical clinical presentation of hypercalcemia?

What are the central nervous system (CNS) effects of hypercalcemia?

What are the renal effects of hypercalcemia?

What are the GI effects of hypercalcemia?

What are the cardiac effects of hypercalcemia?

Which physical findings suggest hypercalcemia?

Which nervous system findings suggest hypercalcemia?

Which renal findings suggest hypercalcemia?

Which GI findings suggest hypercalcemia?

Which cardiac findings suggest hypercalcemia?

Which ophthalmic findings suggest hypercalcemia?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Hypercalcemia?

Workup

What is the most common cause of hypercalcemia and when is it an unlikely cause?

Which findings indicate cancer-caused hypercalcemia?

What is the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) testing in the diagnosis of hypercalcemia?

Which lab tests are useful in determining the cause of hypercalcemia?

What is the role of radiography in the diagnosis of hypercalcemia?

What is the role of mammography, CT scanning, and ultrasonography in the diagnosis of hypercalcemia?

Which imaging study is performed in the biochemical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with hypercalcemia?

What are the ECG characteristics of hypercalcemia?

Treatment

What is an effective short-term treatment for hypercalcemia?

How is hypercalcemia treated once volume is restored?

When is immobilization indicated in the management of hypercalcemia?

What is the efficacy of dietary calcium and vitamin D reduction for the treatment of hypercalcemia?

What is the role of bisphosphonates in the treatment of hypercalcemia?

What is the role of denosumab (Xgeva) in the treatment of hypercalcemia?

What is the role of dialysis in the treatment of patients with hypercalcemia?

When is surgery indicated in the treatment of hypercalcemia?

Which specialists may be consulted for patients with hypercalcemia?

Medications

What is the initial therapy for symptomatic hypercalcemia and what are the treatment options for more severe cases?

Are bisphosphonates effective for treating hypercalcemia?

Which medications in the drug class Calcimimetic Agent are used in the treatment of Hypercalcemia?

Which medications in the drug class Minerals are used in the treatment of Hypercalcemia?

Which medications in the drug class Glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of Hypercalcemia?

Which medications in the drug class Antidote, hypercalcemia agents are used in the treatment of Hypercalcemia?

Which medications in the drug class Monoclonal Antibodies, Endocrine are used in the treatment of Hypercalcemia?

Which medications in the drug class Bisphosphonates are used in the treatment of Hypercalcemia?