Hyperchloremic Acidosis Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 18, 2018
  • Author: Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is hyperchloremic acidosis?

Which conditions are associated with hyperchloremic acidosis?

What is the role of lab testing in the evaluation of hyperchloremic acidosis?

How is proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) treated?

How is hypokalemic distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) treated?

How is hyperkalemic distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) treated?

How are disorders of hyperchloremic acidosis categorized?

What causes proximal renal tubular acidosis (type II [bicarbonate-wasting acidosis)?

What causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA)?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What causes hypokalemic (classic) distal renal tubular acidosis (type I)?

What causes hyperkalemic distal renal tubular acidosis (type IV)?

What is the role of diarrhea in the etiology of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What are GI causes of alkali loss resulting in hyperchloremic acidosis?

What causes proximal renal tubular acidosis (type II)?

What are the causes of proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) (type II)?

What are the sporadic and genetic forms of hypokalemic (classic) distal renal tubular acidosis (type I)?

What are the causes of distal renal tubular acidosis (type I)?

What are the causes of hyperkalemic distal renal tubular acidosis (type IV)

What are miscellaneous etiologies of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What should be included in patient education about hyperchloremic acidosis?

What is the prognosis of hyperchloremic acidosis?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What are the nonspecific symptoms of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What are neurologic signs and symptoms of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What are pulmonary signs of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What are cardiovascular effects of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What are musculoskeletal effects of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What causes nephrocalcinosis and urolithiasis in hyperchloremic acidosis?

Which pulmonary findings suggest hyperchloremic acidosis?

Which musculoskeletal findings suggest hyperchloremic acidosis?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What are the differential diagnoses for Hyperchloremic Acidosis?

Workup

How is hyperchloremic acidosis diagnosed?

How is urinary net change determined in the workup of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What is the role of the urinary pH and urinary anion gap (AG) in the workup of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What are the urinary pH and urinary anion gap (AG) values in patients with hyperchloremic acidosis?

What is the role of acid-loading tests in the workup of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What is the role of the urinary PCO2 test in the workup of hyperchloremic acidosis?

What is the role of sodium sulfate and furosemide tests in the workup of hyperchloremic acidosis?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for hyperchloremic acidosis?

What is included in the treatment of proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA)?

What is included in the treatment of hypokalemic distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA)?

What is included in the treatment of hyperkalemic distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA)?

How is hyperchloremic acidosis prevented?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for hyperchloremic acidosis?

Which medications in the drug class Vitamin D Supplements are used in the treatment of Hyperchloremic Acidosis?

Which medications in the drug class Mineralocorticoids are used in the treatment of Hyperchloremic Acidosis?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics, Loop are used in the treatment of Hyperchloremic Acidosis?

Which medications in the drug class Electrolytes are used in the treatment of Hyperchloremic Acidosis?

Which medications in the drug class Alkalinizing Agents are used in the treatment of Hyperchloremic Acidosis?