Acute Kidney Injury Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 06, 2018
  • Author: Biruh T Workeneh, MD, PhD, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

How is acute kidney injury (AKI) defined?

What are the dermatologic signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the ocular signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the otolaryngologic signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the cardiovascular signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the abdominal signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the pulmonary signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which tests are performed in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

How is acute kidney injury (AKI) treated?

What is acute kidney injury (AKI)?

How is acute kidney injury (AKI) classified?

What is oliguric and nonoliguric acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the RIFLE (Risk of renal dysfunction, Injury to the kidney, Failure or Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease) classification system for acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the acute kidney injury network (AKIN) classification system?

What are the cardiovascular complications of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the pulmonary complications of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the GI complications of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

How is pancreatitis diagnosed in acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What causes jaundice in acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of acute kidney injury (AKI) with hepatitis?

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with infections in acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the signs and symptoms of neurologic complications in acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) with neurologic manifestations?

What is included in patient education about acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of depressed renal blood flow in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of acute tubular necrosis in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of apoptosis in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of inflammatory response in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of vasoconstriction in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of isosthenuria in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the complications of restored renal blood flow in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What causes prerenal acute kidney injury (AKI) in newborns and infants?

What causes prerenal acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What causes volume depletion in acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What causes decreased cardiac output in acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What causes systemic vasodilation in acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What causes afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction in acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What causes decreased effective arterial blood volume in acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which renal arterial diseases cause acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What causes intrinsic acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the vascular causes of intrinsic acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the glomerular causes of intrinsic acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the tubular and cytotoxic causes of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the interstitial causes of intrinsic acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What causes postrenal acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What causes intrinsic acute kidney injury (AKI) in newborns and infants?

What causes postrenal acute kidney injury (AKI) in newborns and infants?

What causes prerenal acute kidney injury (AKI) in children?

What causes intrinsic acute kidney injury (AKI) in children?

How does cardiopulmonary bypass affect the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are mortality rates of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

How does fluid balance affect the prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are prognostic factors of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

How does nephritis affect the prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

How does proteinuria affect the prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

How do statins affect the prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the long-term prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Presentation

How is acute kidney injury (AKI) differentiated from chronic kidney disease?

What are the etiologic factors for acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which comorbid conditions increase the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which urine output findings are characteristic of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of prerenal acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of intrinsic acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of postrenal acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which dermatologic findings are characteristic of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which findings on eye exam suggest acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which ear exam findings suggest acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is included in the physical exam to assess cardiovascular and volume status in suspected acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which cardiovascular findings suggest acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What disorders are suggested by severe hypertension with renal failure during the evaluation of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the abdominal findings characteristic of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which pulmonary findings suggest acute kidney injury (AKI)?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of urine output in the differential workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Acute Kidney Injury?

Workup

What is the role of lab tests in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of renal imaging in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of kidney function studies in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

How is the rise in creatinine predicted in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of NephroCheck in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of peripheral smear in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of serologic testing in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of urinalysis in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of urine electrolyte testing in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of bladder pressure testing in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of biomarkers in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of renal ultrasonography in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of Doppler ultrasonography in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of nuclear scanning in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of aortorenal angiography in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of renal biopsy in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of a furosemide stress test in the workup of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Treatment

When should treatment of kidney injury (AKI) be initiated?

How is volume homeostasis maintained in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of furosemide in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

How is hyperkalemia treated in acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of nephrotoxic agents in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of vasodilators in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of dialysis in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the timing and intensity of dialysis in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of peritoneal dialysis in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of saline in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of N -acetylcysteine in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of statins in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the role of forced diuresis in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

How is acute kidney injury (AKI) prevented?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

Which medications in the drug class Antidotes, Other are used in the treatment of Acute Kidney Injury?

Which medications in the drug class Calcium Channel Blockers are used in the treatment of Acute Kidney Injury?

Which medications in the drug class Vasodilators are used in the treatment of Acute Kidney Injury?

Which medications in the drug class Inotropic Agents are used in the treatment of Acute Kidney Injury?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics, Loop are used in the treatment of Acute Kidney Injury?