Nephrocalcinosis Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Aug 09, 2021
  • Author: Tibor Fulop, MD, PhD, FACP, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
  • Print

Diagnostic Considerations

Nephrocalcinosis, though seemingly a simple finding, incorporates numerous potential disease processes in the differential. An effort should be made to describe the location and degree of nephrocalcinosis and to uncover the underlying metabolic abnormality or abnormalities (eg, renal tubular acidosis). In clinical practice, nephrocalcinosis is more commonly encountered in its macroscopic form than in its microscopic form. It must not be considered synonymous with renal stone disease, because it has much broader metabolic implications.

Differential Diagnoses

  • Bartter Syndrome

  • Dent's disease

  • Distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA)

  • Drug exposure (topiramate)

  • Enamel-renal syndrome

  • Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis

  • Hyperoxaluria

  • Medullary Sponge Kidney

  • Prematurity (usually transient)

  • Renal manifestations of primary mitochondrial disorders

  • Sjogren Syndrome

  • X-linked hypophosphatemia