Nephrotic Syndrome Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 06, 2020
  • Author: Ramapriya Sinnakirouchenan, MD, MBBS; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is nephrotic syndrome?

What are the possible causes of nephrotic syndrome?

Which populations are at risk for nephrotic syndrome?

How is nephrotic syndrome classified?

What causes primary nephrotic syndrome?

Which disorders are secondary causes of nephrotic syndrome?

How is steroid response used in the classification of nephrotic syndrome?

How much albumin is passed daily into the urine of a healthy individual?

How much albumin passes into urine in patients with tubular transport defects?

What is the anatomy of the glomerular filtration barrier?

What is congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type?

Which glomerular structural changes may cause nephrotic syndrome?

What is the difference between selective and nonselective proteinuria?

What is the pathogenesis of edema in nephrotic syndrome?

What is the underfill hypothesis of edema in nephrotic syndrome?

What is the overfill hypothesis of edema in nephrotic syndrome?

What are the metabolic consequences of nephrotic syndrome?

What are the common infectious complications of nephrotic syndrome?

What are the possible causes of increased infection risk in patients with nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of hyperlipidemia in nephrotic syndrome?

Does nephrotic syndrome increase the risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease?

Does nephrotic syndrome increase the risk for hypocalcemia?

Does nephrotic syndrome increase the risk for venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism?

What is the pathophysiology of hypovolemia in patients with nephrotic syndrome, and what are its symptoms?

What is the pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy?

What does nephrotic-range proteinuria during pregnancy indicate?

What are the common causes of primary and secondary nephrotic syndrome?

Which medications may cause nephrotic syndrome?

Does membranous nephropathy increase the risk for cancer?

What is the incidence of nephrotic syndrome in the US?

Does nephrotic syndrome have a parasitic etiology?

Which racial groups are most affected by nephrotic syndrome?

Is nephrotic syndrome more common in males or females?

Does the cause of nephrotic syndrome vary among different age groups?

What is the prognosis of nephrotic syndrome?

What is the prognosis of congenital nephrotic syndrome?

What is the prognosis of focal glomerulosclerosis?

What is the prognosis of minimal-change nephropathy?

How often does remission of proteinuria occur in nephrotic syndrome?

What is the prognosis of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome?

What is the mortality rate for idiopathic membranous nephropathy?

Which factors worsen the prognosis of membranous nephropathy?

What is the prognosis of diabetic nephropathy with nephrotic syndrome?

What is the prognosis of amyloidosis with nephrotic syndrome?

How should patients be educated about nephrotic syndrome?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of nephrotic syndrome?

Which physical findings suggest nephrotic syndrome?

DDX

How is heart failure differentiated from nephrotic syndrome?

How is cirrhosis differentiated from nephrotic syndrome?

What are the differential diagnoses for Nephrotic Syndrome?

Workup

Which diagnostic studies should be performed for suspected nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of urinalysis in the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of urine sediment exam in the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of urinary protein measurement in the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome?

When is a renal biopsy indicated in the diagnosis of childhood nephrotic syndrome?

When is renal biopsy indicated in the diagnosis of adult nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2 R) antibody testing in the management of nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of kidney function testing in the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of serum albumin testing in the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of serologic studies in the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome?

Which histologic findings suggest nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for nephrotic syndrome?

How is minimal-change nephropathic syndrome treated in children?

Is rituximab effective in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome?

Is ofatumumab an effective treatment for nephrotic syndrome in children?

Is cyclosporine A effective in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome in children?

How often and what duration should prednisone be administered for steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome in children?

What is the dosing approach to prednisolone in the treatment of frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome in children?

How is congenital nephrotic syndrome treated?

What is an effective treatment for minimal change nephropathy in adults?

What is an effective treatment for lupus nephritis in adults?

How is secondary amyloidosis with nephrotic syndrome treated in adults?

How is membranous nephropathy treated in adults?

Are specific diet and activity restrictions required in the management of nephrotic syndrome?

When is hospitalization indicated for acute nephrotic syndrome in children?

How is acute nephrotic syndrome treated in children?

How is infection prevented in children with acute nephrotic syndrome?

When is consultation with a specialist indicated in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome in children?

How is acute nephrotic syndrome treated in adults?

Is long-term monitoring of nephrotic syndrome required?

What are the benefits of a low-sodium diet in patients with nephrotic syndrome?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome?

Which medications are used to treat minimal-change nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of immunosuppressive medications in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome?

What is the role of cyclophosphamide in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome?

When is cyclosporine indicated in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome?

Which medications are used to treat focal glomerulosclerosis?

Which medications are used to treat idiopathic membranous nephropathy?

What is the role of rituximab in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome?

When is corticotropin gel formulation (repository corticotropin injection) indicated in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Analogue are used in the treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Angiotensin II receptor antagonists are used in the treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics are used in the treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressants are used in the treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Immunomodulators are used in the treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome?