Polycystic Kidney Disease Medication

Updated: Apr 26, 2018
  • Author: Roser Torra, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
  • Print
Medication

Medication Summary

Tolvaptan (Jynarque), a selective vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, was approved in the U.S. in April 2018 to slow kidney function decline in adults at risk of rapidly progressing ADPKD. Approval was based on several phase 3 clinical trials. [34, 51, 52]

The drugs of choice for hypertension related to ADPKD are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). Do not treat ADPKD-related abdominal pain with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) because of their potential nephrotoxic effect.

Cyst infections require gyrase inhibitors (eg, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin). Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is also an effective antibiotic for reaching the inner cavity of the cyst.

Renal failure requires drugs to maintain electrolyte levels (eg, calcium carbonate, calcium acetate, sevelamer, lanthanum carbonate, calcitriol [possibly], diuretics, blood pressure medications). Approximately 62% of patients with renal insufficiency require at least 2 antihypertensive agents for optimal blood pressure control.

Next:

Vasopressin Antagonists

Class Summary

The selective vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, tolvaptan, causes an increase in urine water excretion that results in an increase in free water clearance (aquaresis), a decrease in urine osmolality, and a resulting increase in serum sodium concentration.

Tolvaptan (Jynarque)

Indicated to slow kidney function decline in adults at risk of rapidly progressing autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). This indication is specific for Jynarque (ie, not Samsca) as the dosing and duration differs. Because of the potential for serious liver injury, Jynarque is available only through a restricted distribution program.

Previous
Next:

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

Class Summary

ACE inhibitors suppress the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Enalapril (Vasotec)

Enalapril is a competitive inhibitor of ACE. It reduces angiotensin II levels, decreasing aldosterone secretion.

Lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)

This agent prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in lower aldosterone secretion.

Captopril

Captopril prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in lower aldosterone secretion.

Previous
Next:

Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists

Class Summary

ARBs interfere with the binding of formed angiotensin II to its endogenous receptor. These agents reduce blood pressure and proteinuria, protecting renal function and delaying onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Valsartan (Diovan)

Valsartan is a prodrug that produces direct antagonism of angiotensin II receptors. It displaces angiotensin II from the AT1 receptor and may lower blood pressure by antagonizing AT1-induced vasoconstriction, aldosterone release, catecholamine release, arginine vasopressin release, water intake, and hypertrophic responses.

Valsartan may induce more complete inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system than ACE inhibitors, it does not affect response to bradykinin, and it is less likely to be associated with cough and angioedema. It is for use in patients unable to tolerate ACE inhibitors.

Losartan (Cozaar)

Losartan is an ARB that blocks the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II. It may induce a more complete inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system than ACE inhibitors, it does not affect the response to bradykinin, and it is less likely to be associated with cough and angioedema. It is used for patients unable to tolerate ACE inhibitors.

Candesartan (Atacand)

Candesartan blocks the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II. It may induce more complete inhibition of renin-angiotensin system than ACE inhibitors, it does not affect response to bradykinin, and it is less likely to be associated with cough and angioedema. It is used in patients unable to tolerate ACE inhibitors.

Olmesartan (Benicar)

Olmesartan blocks the vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin II by selectively blocking binding of angiotensin II to the AT-1 receptor in vascular smooth muscle. Its action is independent of pathways for angiotensin II synthesis.

Previous
Next:

Antibiotics

Class Summary

Empiric antimicrobial therapy must be comprehensive and should cover all likely pathogens in the context of the clinical setting.

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)

Ciprofloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis and, consequently, growth. It is a fluoroquinolone with activity against pseudomonads, streptococci, methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA), S epidermidis, and most gram-negative organisms, but no activity against anaerobes. Levofloxacin (Levaquin) overcomes many of these limitations. Continue treatment for at least 2 d (7-14 d typical) after signs and symptoms have disappeared.

Levofloxacin (Levaquin)

Levofloxacin inhibits growth of susceptible organisms by inhibiting DNA gyrase and promoting breakage of DNA strands.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Bactrim DS, Septra, Septra DS)

This agent inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting synthesis of dihydrofolic acid.

Clindamycin (Cleocin)

Clindamycin inhibits bacterial growth, possibly by blocking dissociation of peptidyl tRNA from ribosomes, causing RNA-dependent protein synthesis to arrest.

Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol binds to 50S bacterial-ribosomal subunits and inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting protein synthesis. It is effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

Previous
Next:

Phosphate Binders

Class Summary

Administer phosphate binders to maintain phosphate levels in renal failure.

Calcium Acetate ( PhosLo, Eliphos)

Calcium acetate reduces the phosphorus load.

Lanthanum carbonate (Fosrenol)

Lanthanum is a noncalcium, nonaluminum phosphate binder indicated for reduction of high phosphorus levels in patients with ESRD. It directly binds dietary phosphorus in the upper GI tract, thereby inhibiting phosphorus absorption.

Sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel, Renvela)

This polymeric phosphate binder for oral administration does not contain aluminum. Thus, aluminum intoxication is not a concern.

Previous