Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 18, 2018
  • Author: Anita Basu, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

How is contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) defined?

What is contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What are the risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What are the renal function markers in contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is included in patient education for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

How is contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) prevented?

How is contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) managed?

What is the pathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the role of renal (particularly medullary) microcirculation in the etiology of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the etiology of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the role of vasoconstriction in the etiology of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

Which factors affect the ability of different classes of contrast media (CM) to cause contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

How are the types of risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What are the patient-related risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What are the procedure-related risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What are the contrast-related risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the most significant patient-related risk factor for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the occurrence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI)?

What is the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in the US?

Which patient groups have the highest incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the prognosis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What are the mortality rates for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the prognosis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) caused by gadolinium-based contrast media (CM)?

What are the risk factors for gadolinium-based contrast -induced nephropathy (CIN)?

How is risk stratified for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the scoring system used to identify risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What are the Bartholomew and the Lin scoring systems to identify the risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

Presentation

What is the clinical history of patients with contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the role of the physical exam in the evaluation of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the evaluation of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

Treatment

How is contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) prevented?

Which therapies for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) have been investigated?

Which strategies are effective in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the role of hydration in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the role of diuretics in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What are best practices for hydration therapy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients at risk?

How is contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) prevented in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF)?

What is the role of statins in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the role of bicarbonate therapy in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

Why is bicarbonate therapy a controversial prevention method for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the role of N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

Why is N-acetylcysteine a controversial prevention method for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

How often is dialysis required in the treatment of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

How does contrast media (CM) affect patients with renal impairment?

What are issues with contrast media (CM) administration in patients on dialysis?

Which patients are at greatest risk for acute damage from contrast media (CM)?

What is the role of hemodialysis in the treatment of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the role of periprocedural extracorporeal blood purification (ECBP) in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the role of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for the treatment of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

When should dialysis be given immediately after contrast administration?

What is the role of ascorbic acid for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the role of adenosine antagonists for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

Which vasodilators are used in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the role of forced diuresis in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is considered the best therapy for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

Which factors are used to predict the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What are alternative imaging studies for patients with risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

How should patients with a moderate to severe risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) be monitored before and after contrast administration?

Which imaging studies are indicated in the emergency department for patients at risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

How should contrast media (CM) be administered in patients at risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

Which medications should be withdrawn prior to administration of contrast media (CM)?

How is the amount of contrast minimized in patients at risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

What is the role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

Medications

Which agents are used in hydration therapy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)?

Which medications in the drug class Electrolyte Supplements, Parenteral are used in the treatment of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy?

Which medications in the drug class Antilipemic Agents are used in the treatment of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy?

Which medications in the drug class Antidote, Acetaminophen are used in the treatment of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy?