Microcephaly Guidelines

Updated: Jun 10, 2016
  • Author: James J Reese, Jr, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Amy Kao, MD  more...
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Guidelines

Guidelines Summary

The American Academy of Neurology's Practice Parameter for Evaluation of the Child with Microcephaly recommends the following: [3]

Diagnostic testing

  • Neuroimaging may be considered useful in identifying structural causes in the evaluation of the child with microcephaly ( Level C).
  • Specific targeted genetic testing may be considered in the evaluation of the child with microcephaly in order to determine a specific etiology ( Level C).
  • There is insufficient evidence to support or refute obtaining metabolic testing on a routine basis for the evaluation of the newborn or infant with microcephaly ( Level U).

Associated neurological disorders

  • Because children with microcephaly are at risk for epilepsy, physicians may consider educating caregivers of children with microcephaly on how to recognize clinical seizures ( Level C).
  • There are insufficient data to support or refute obtaining a routine EEG in a child with microcephaly ( Level U).
  • Because children with microcephaly are at risk for cerebral palsy (CP), physicians and other care providers may consider monitoring them for early signs so that supportive treatments can be initiated ( Level C).
  • Because children with CP are at risk for developing acquired microcephaly, serial HC measurements should be followed ( Level A).
  • Because children with microcephaly are at risk for developmental disability, physicians should periodically assess development and academic achievement to determine whether further testing and rehabilitative efforts are warranted ( Level A).