Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Questions & Answers

Updated: Jun 05, 2020
  • Author: David J Cennimo, MD, FAAP, FACP, AAHIVS; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is coronavirus?

What is novel coronavirus?

What is COVID-19?

How did the coronavirus outbreak start?

Where did the coronavirus outbreak start?

Why is coronavirus infection called COVID-19?

What are the signs and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the CDC risk assessment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the US?

Who is at highest risk of contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Can coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread from person to person?

Which precautions should high-risk persons take to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the process for diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

How is coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treated?

What are coronaviruses?

Are facemasks effective in preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Are surgical facemasks more effective than N95 masks in preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

How does coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread?

Can asymptomatic people spread coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the duration of viral shedding in persons with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Which patient groups in the US have the highest risk of dying of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the global and US prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Which age groups are most likely to develop coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What are the epidemiology and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) in and around New York City?

Which age groups are most likely to be hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Which age groups are most likely to be admitted to the ICU for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Can children develop coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

How does coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affect pregnant women and neonates?

What was the epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China?

Can coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) be transmitted vertically?

What were the epidemiologic and clinical features of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China?

What are the CDC estimates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemiology parameters?

What are the characteristics of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Which age groups are most likely to die of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Is coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) more severe than SARS and MERS?

Which patient groups were more likely to develop severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China?

What were the mortality risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China?

Is the genome of SARS-CoV-2 (coronavirus) known?

Presentation

What are the possible symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

How long do coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms take to develop?

What is the incubation period for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Are symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children common?

How common is asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What are important history details when evaluating a patient for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What were the most common presentations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China?

What is the most common serious symptom of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

How should a patient under investigation for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) be evaluated in healthcare settings?

What are the potential complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

How common is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Are cardiac complications common in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Is acute kidney injury a common complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the clinical progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Workup

Where are diagnostic tests for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) processed?

What are the IDSA recommendations for prioritizing patients to be tested for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Should coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) testing be repeated if PCR results are negative?

Is an antibody test available for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Can viral culture be used to diagnose coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What are common lab features in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What type of test is used to evaluate for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the significance of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result after clinical resolution of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Which clinical specimen samples are best for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) testing?

Are there any signs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in seemingly asymptomatic patients?

What is the role of CT scanning in the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the role of chest radiography in the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Treatment

How is coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treated?

Are any drugs available for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) postexposure prophylaxis?

Is a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine available?

How can community spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) be prevented/minimized?

What is the role of the antiparasitic drug ivermectin in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the role of the antiviral drug remdesivir in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the role of the antivirals lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What other antiviral agents are being investigated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the role of nitazoxanide in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019)?

What is the role of convalescent plasma in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the role of interleukin (IL) inhibitors in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the role of the IL-6 inhibitor sarilumab (Kevzara) in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the role of the IL-6 inhibitor tocilizumab (Actemra) in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What are the roles of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the role of corticosteroids (such as methylprednisolone) in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the role of nitric oxide in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the role of hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What is the role of JAK and NAK inhibitors (baricitinib, fedratinib, ruxolitinib, pacritinib) in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019)?

What is the role of statins in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019)?

What other drugs are being investigated to treat ARDS/cytokine release associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Which immunotherapies are being investigated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Which antibody-directed therapies are being investigated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Which vaccines are being investigated for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention?

What are considerations for using ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and ARBs in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Why is diabetes a risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Which drugs being studied for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are associated with QT prolongation and an increased risk of cardiac death?

Guidelines

What guidelines are available for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What are the CDC criteria to guide evaluation and testing of patients under investigation for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What are the CDC's sample collection and testing guidelines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What are the guidelines for containing hospital spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What are the AAP guidelines for management of infants born to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What are the IDSA treatment guidelines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

What are the CDC guidelines for reporting, testing, and specimen collection for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?