Carotid-Cavernous Fistula Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Jan 22, 2021
  • Author: Michael G Nosko, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Brian H Kopell, MD  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

Conjunctivitis, thyroid eye disease, or other common ocular conditions share clinical features with carotid-cavernous fistulas. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of CCF. [1]  Failure to differentiate CCF from more common diagnoses can result in a worsening prognosis. [16]

Differential Diagnoses