Cervical Cancer Questions & Answers

Updated: Feb 12, 2019
  • Author: Cecelia H Boardman, MD; Chief Editor: Warner K Huh, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

How common is cervical cancer in the US?

What are the signs and symptoms of cervical cancer?

What causes cervical cancer?

Who should be screened for cervical cancer?

Which vaccines are available to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer?

What is the stage-based treatment for cervical cancer?

What is the prevalence of cervical cancer?

What is the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the etiology of cervical cancer?

Where can information on cervical cancer evaluation be found?

What is the basis for treatment selection in cervical cancer?

How frequently does papillomavirus (HPV) infection cause cervical cancer?

Which factors influence the pathogenesis of cervical cancer?

What is the role of oral contraceptives in the etiology of cervical cancer?

What is the role of genetics in the pathophysiology of cervical cancer?

What is the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes in the pathophysiology of cervical cancer?

What is the role of epigenetic modifications in the pathophysiology of cervical cancer?

What is the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathophysiology of cervical cancer?

What is the role of HIV in the pathophysiology of cervical cancer?

What causes cervical cancer?

What is the prevalence of cervical cancer?

How does the incidence of cervical cancer vary by age?

What are the racial predilections of cervical cancer?

What is the prognosis of cervical cancer?

What is the importance of patient education for cervical cancer?

What is the best approach to encourage women to undergo cervical cancer screening?

Presentation

Which clinical history is characteristic of cervical cancer?

Which physical findings are characteristic of cervical cancer?

DDX

What conditions should be considered in the differential diagnoses of cervical cancer?

What are the differential diagnoses for Cervical Cancer?

Workup

What is included in the evaluation for cervical cancer?

Following a diagnosis of cervical cancer what testing is performed for staging?

What is the role of cystoscopy and proctoscopy in the workup of cervical cancer?

What is the role of imaging studies in the management of cervical cancer?

What are the screening recommendations for cervical cancer?

What are the age-specific screening recommendations for cervical cancer?

What were the 2017 changes to the USPSTF screening recommendations for cervical cancer?

What are the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) treatment guidelines for abnormal cervical cancer screening results?

What are recommendations for cervical cancer screening in women following hysterectomy?

What are the recommendations for cervical cancer screening in women with HIV infection?

What is the role of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing in the workup of cervical cancer?

What is the ThinPrep Papanicolaou (Pap) test?

What is the role of the Hybrid Capture II assay for HPV in workup for cervical cancer?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of cervical cancer?

What are the benefits of surgical staging for cervical cancer?

How are Pap test results reported?

What are specimen classifications in the histology of cervical cancer?

What is the general categorization of the histology of cervical cancer?

What are the possible interpretations of histologic findings in cervical cancer?

Which histologic findings are diagnostic of cervical cancer?

What staging systems are used for cervical cancer?

What is the TNM system grading for regional lymph node (N) involvement in cervical cancer?

Treatment

What is the basis for selection of treatment in cervical cancer?

What are the treatment options for stage 0 cervical cancer?

What are the treatment options for stage IA1 cervical cancer?

What are treatment options for stage IB or IIA cervical cancer?

When is radical vaginal trachelectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection indicated in the treatment of cervical cancer?

What is the efficacy of trachelectomy and hysterectomy for the treatment of stage IA2, IB, or IIA cervical cancer?

What are the surgerical options for stage IA2 to IIA cervical cancers?

What is the role of lymphadenectomy in the treatment of stage IA2, IB, or IIA cervical cancer?

What are the indications for postoperative irradiation of the pelvis for the treatment of stage IA2, IB, or IIA cervical cancer?

What are the treatment options for stage IIB, III, or IVA cervical cancer?

What are treatment options for stage IVB and recurrent cervical cancer?

How are pelvic recurrences of cervical cancer treated?

What are the treatment options for cervical cancer recurring after chemotherapy and radiation therapy?

What is the role of bevacizumab in the treatment of cervical cancer?

What are the treatment options for recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer?

What are radiation treatment-related complications of cervical cancer?

What are surgical complications in cervical cancer?

What is the role of nutrition in the treatment of cervical cancer?

How is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection transmitted?

What is the efficacy of vaccines for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection?

Which human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are available?

What were the findings of the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial regarding the efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination?

What are the recommendations for cervical cancer screening after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination?

What is the duration of protection of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination?

What is the safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines?

Guidelines

What tests are performed to screen for cervical cancer?

Which organizations have issued guidelines for cervical cancer screening?

What are the ACOG guidelines for cervical cancer screening in women with HIV infection?

What are the ASCCP recommendations for the management of abnormal cervical cancer screening results?

What algorithms are provided by ASCCP for management of abnormal cervical cancer screening results?

What are ACOG recommendations with consistent scientific evidence for cervical cancer screening?

Which patient groups should receive more frequent cervical cancer screening?

What are the recommendations for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to prevent cervical cancer?

What are the guidelines for staging cervical cancer?

Which organizations have released treatment guidelines for cervical cancer and fertility preservation?

What are the recommendations for treating women with cervical cancer?

What are the guidelines for treating early-stage (IA1) cervical cancer?

What are the guidelines for treating stage IA2 cervical cancer?

What are the guidelines for treating stage IB or IIA cervical cancer?

What are the recommendations for treatment of advanced cervical cancer?

What are the ASCO guidelines for treating invasive cervical cancer?

What are the guidelines for treating metastatic cervical cancer?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of cervical cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines, Inactivated, Viral are used in the treatment of Cervical Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Cervical Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, VEGF Inhibitor are used in the treatment of Cervical Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, Topoisomerase Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Cervical Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, Antimicrotubular are used in the treatment of Cervical Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, Antimetabolite are used in the treatment of Cervical Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Chemotherapy Agents, Alkylating are used in the treatment of Cervical Cancer?