Ovarian Dysgerminomas Clinical Presentation

Updated: Jan 23, 2020
  • Author: Chad M Michener, MD; Chief Editor: Warner K Huh, MD  more...
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No specific symptoms are diagnostic of dysgerminomas. Many of the presenting symptoms are universal for any adnexal/ovarian mass.

Most patients with dysgerminomas present with abdominal pain and a palpable abdominopelvic mass.

Frequently associated symptoms include the following:

  • Pelvic fullness

  • Pain

  • Early satiety

  • Urinary frequency

  • Dysuria

Vague abdominal symptoms (eg, dyspepsia, digestive disturbances) are less common.

These tumors usually present as a unilateral mass and can occur during pregnancy.

Dysgerminomas can have rapid growth and predispose to rupture and torsion with an associated acute change in symptoms in approximately 5-10% of patients.


Physical Examination

The physical examination should be complete in order to look for signs of metastatic disease outside the abdominal cavity, including lymphadenopathy, pleural effusions, and other focal findings. Although not commonly seen with dysgerminomas, such findings may help in narrowing the differential.

A thorough abdominal and pelvic examination on a gynecology table with stirrups should include a careful rectovaginal examination because some enlarged adnexal masses can be detected from this approach. Moreover, it may identify patients with irregularities of the sidewall and cul-de-sac peritoneum.