Ovarian Dysgerminomas Clinical Presentation

Updated: Apr 15, 2015
  • Author: Chad M Michener, MD; Chief Editor: Warner K Huh, MD  more...
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Presentation

History

No specific symptoms are diagnostic of dysgerminoma tumors. Many of the presenting symptoms are universal for any adnexal/ovarian mass.

Most patients with dysgerminomas present with abdominal pain and a palpable abdominopelvic mass.

Frequently associated symptoms include the following:

  • Pelvic fullness
  • Pain
  • Early satiety
  • Urinary frequency
  • Dysuria

Vague abdominal symptoms (eg, dyspepsia, digestive disturbances) are less common.

These tumors usually present as a unilateral mass and can occur during pregnancy.

These tumors can have rapid growth and predispose to rupture and torsion with associated acute change in symptoms in approximately 5-10% of patients.

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Physical

The physical examination should be complete in order to look for signs of metastatic disease outside the abdominal cavity, including lymphadenopathy, pleural effusions, and other focal findings. Although not commonly seen with dysgerminomas, it may help in narrowing the differential.

A thorough abdominal and pelvic examination on a gynecology table with stirrups should include a careful rectovaginal examination because some enlarged adnexal masses can be detected from this approach. Moreover, it may identify patients with irregularities of the sidewall and cul-de-sac peritoneum.

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Causes

The exact etiology for this tumor type has not been elucidated.

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