Dysmenorrhea Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 02, 2017
  • Author: Karim Anton Calis, PharmD, MPH, FASHP, FCCP; Chief Editor: Michel E Rivlin, MD  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

How is dysmenorrhea categorized?

What should be the focus of history for a patient with dysmenorrhea?

What are the clinical features of primary dysmenorrhea?

What are the signs and symptoms of secondary dysmenorrhea?

What is included in the physical exam for dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of lab testing in the evaluation of secondary dysmenorrhea?

When are imaging studies indicated in the workup of dysmenorrhea?

What invasive procedures may be considered in the diagnosis of dysmenorrhea?

How is dysmenorrhea managed?

Which NSAIDs are FDA approved for the treatment of dysmenorrhea?

Which NSAIDs have been used to treat dysmenorrhea?

Which oral contraceptives (OCs) are used to treat dysmenorrhea?

What nonpharmacologic measures may be beneficial for outpatient management of dysmenorrhea?

How is dysmenorrhea defined?

What are the differences between primary and secondary dysmenorrhea?

What are the risk factors for more severe dysmenorrhea?

How do obesity and alcohol affect dysmenorrhea?

How does dysmenorrhea affect quality of life?

What is the importance of history in patients with dysmenorrhea?

Which lab tests are used to diagnosis primary dysmenorrhea?

What are the goals of treatment of dysmenorrhea?

What is the historical characterization of pain in dysmenorrhea?

What is the pathogenesis of primary dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of prostaglandins in the pathogenesis of primary dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of primary dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of vasopressin in the pathogenesis of primary dysmenorrhea?

What is the neuronal hypothesis for the pathogenesis of primary dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of behavioral and psychological factors in the pathogenesis of primary dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of the endocrine system in the pathogenesis of primary dysmenorrhea?

How is the central nervous system affected in dysmenorrhea?

Which factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of secondary dysmenorrhea?

What are the risk factors for primary dysmenorrhea?

What are the risk factors for secondary dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of uterine leiomyomata in the etiology of secondary dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in the etiology of dysmenorrhea?

What is the significance of a finding of adnexal tenderness in the evaluation of dysmenorrhea?

What is the treatment for dysmenorrhea caused by pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the role of tubo-ovarian abscess in the etiology of dysmenorrhea?

What is the treatment for dysmenorrhea caused by tubo-ovarian abscess?

What is the role of ovarian torsion in the etiology of dysmenorrhea?

What are the signs and symptoms of ovarian torsion-related dysmenorrhea?

How is dysmenorrhea caused by ovarian torsion diagnosed?

Which specialist should be consulted in dysmenorrhea with a suspected ovarian torsion etiology?

What is the role of ovarian cysts in the etiology of dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of endometriosis in the etiology of dysmenorrhea?

What is characteristic about the history of patients with dysmenorrhea caused by endometriosis?

How is endometriosis diagnosed in patients with dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of adenomyosis in the etiology of dysmenorrhea?

How is adenomyosis diagnosed in patients with dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) in the etiology of dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the etiology of dysmenorrhea?

What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in the US?

How does the incidence of dysmenorrhea vary by age?

What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea among adolescents?

What is the global prevalence of dysmenorrhea worldwide?

How does the prevalence of dysmenorrhea vary amongst Italian women?

What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in Australia?

How does smoking affect a women’s risk for dysmenorrhea?

What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea amongst Iranian women?

How does the prevalence of dysmenorrhea vary by age?

What are the racial predilections for dysmenorrhea?

What is the prognosis of dysmenorrhea?

How does dysmenorrhea affect daily life?

Presentation

What should be the focus of history in patients with dysmenorrhea?

What is included in the history of patients with dysmenorrhea?

Why is obtaining a history of sexual abuse important in the evaluation of dysmenorrhea?

What should be included in a complete history in patients with dysmenorrhea?

What are the clinical features of primary dysmenorrhea?

What are the general symptoms of dysmenorrhea?

What is the pattern of pain for secondary dysmenorrhea?

What are the signs and symptoms of secondary dysmenorrhea?

What is included in the physical exam for dysmenorrhea?

Which physical findings are characteristic of primary dysmenorrhea?

Which physical findings are characteristic of secondary dysmenorrhea?

When is pelvic ultrasonography indicated in the evaluation of dysmenorrhea?

DDX

What is the key diagnostic issue in dysmenorrhea?

What conditions should be considered in the differential diagnoses of dysmenorrhea?

What are the differential diagnoses for Dysmenorrhea?

Workup

How is primary dysmenorrhea diagnosed?

When are lab studies indicated in the evaluation of dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of lab testing in the evaluation of secondary dysmenorrhea?

What are the limitations to lab studies in the diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhea?

What are the limitations to lab testing for dysmenorrhea in patients with vaginal bleeding?

How is lab testing used in the evaluation of dysmenorrhea and its underlying cause?

What is the role of imaging studies in the evaluation of dysmenorrhea?

How is ultrasonography used in the evaluation of dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of hysterosalpingography in the evaluation of dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of CT scanning in the evaluation of dysmenorrhea?

Which invasive procedures may be performed in the evaluation of dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of laparoscopy in the evaluation of dysmenorrhea?

Treatment

What are self-medication options for the treatment of dysmenorrhea?

What is included in emergency department (ED) treatment of dysmenorrhea?

How does the treatment approach to dysmenorrhea vary based on presentation?

What are the goals of treatment for dysmenorrhea?

What are the treatment approaches for dysmenorrhea with refractory symptoms?

What is the approach to treatment of patients with both primary and secondary dysmenorrhea?

What is the focus of treatment for primary dysmenorrhea?

What is the most reliable treatment for symptoms of dysmenorrhea?

What are the most common therapeutic modalities for primary dysmenorrhea?

What is the treatment approach to secondary dysmenorrhea?

Which pharmacologic drugs are the most common treatment for dysmenorrhea?

What is the efficacy of NSAIDs in the treatment of dysmenorrhea?

When are NSAIDs contraindicated for the treatment of dysmenorrhea?

Which NSAIDs are FDA approved for the treatment of dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of aspirin in the treatment of dysmenorrhea?

Which NSAIDs are preferred in the treatment of dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors in the treatment of dysmenorrhea?

Which is the role of narcotic agents in the treatment of dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of oral contraceptives (OCs) in the treatment of dysmenorrhea?

When are oral contraceptives (OCs) indicated in the management of dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of combination therapies in the treatment of dysmenorrhea?

What is the role of dietary and complementary therapies in the treatment of dysmenorrhea?

How is dysmenorrhea prevented?

Medications

What is the focus of treatment of primary dysmenorrhea?

What is involved in the treatment of secondary dysmenorrhea?

Which medications in the drug class Oral Contraceptives are used in the treatment of Dysmenorrhea?

Which medications in the drug class Opioid Analgesics are used in the treatment of Dysmenorrhea?

Which medications in the drug class Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are used in the treatment of Dysmenorrhea?