Ovarian Cancer Questions & Answers

Updated: May 13, 2020
  • Author: Andrew E Green, MD; Chief Editor: Yukio Sonoda, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

How common is ovarian cancer?

What are the signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer?

How is the diagnosis of ovarian cancer confirmed?

What are the guidelines on ovarian cancer screening in the general population?

Which lab tests are performed in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer?

Which imaging studies are performed in the workup of ovarian cancer?

When is a GI tract workup indicated in the evaluation of ovarian cancer?

When are FNA or biopsy indicated in the workup of ovarian cancer?

How is ovarian cancer treated?

Which surgical procedures are used in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

Which chemotherapy agents are used in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is ovarian cancer?

What is the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer?

What is the pathophysiology of epithelial ovarian cancer?

What is the pathophysiology of epithelial ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP)?

What is the pathophysiology of malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary?

What is the pathophysiology of dysgerminoma of the ovary?

What is the pathophysiology of cystic teratoma of the ovary?

What is the pathophysiology of ovarian immature teratoma?

What are the rare germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary?

What is the pathophysiology of sex-cord stromal ovarian tumors?

What is the pathophysiology of granulosa cell tumor ovarian tumors?

What is the pathophysiology of Sertoli-Leydig cell ovarian tumors?

What are the types of carcinoma and sarcoma of the ovary?

What is the pathophysiology of metastatic tumors of the ovary?

What causes ovarian cancer?

What are the reproductive risk factors for ovarian cancer?

What are the genetic risk factors for ovarian cancer?

What is the role of hormone therapy in the etiology of ovarian cancer?

What are the environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer?

Is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) a risk factor for ovarian cancer?

What is the prevalence of ovarian cancer in the US?

What is the mortality rate of ovarian cancer in the US?

What is the global prevalence of ovarian cancer?

What is the prognosis of ovarian cancer?

What is the prognosis of ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP)?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of ovarian cancer?

Which physical findings are characteristic of ovarian cancer?

DDX

How are ovarian cysts differentiated from ovarian cancer?

How are benign adnexal masses differentiated from ovarian cancer?

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of ovarian cancer?

What are the differential diagnoses for Ovarian Cancer?

Workup

How is ovarian cancer diagnosed?

How does screening and early detection of ovarian cancer affect mortality rates?

What is the role of tumor markers in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of imaging in the workup of ovarian cancer?

How are GI symptoms assessed in the workup of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of biopsy in the workup of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of mammography in the workup of ovarian cancer?

How are ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) diagnosed?

How are malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (GCTs) diagnosed?

How is ovarian cancer staged?

How is stage I ovarian cancer defined?

How is stage II ovarian cancer defined?

How is stage III ovarian cancer defined?

How is stage IV ovarian cancer defined?

What are the FIGO recommendations for ovarian cancer staging?

Treatment

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

Which factors are used to determine the appropriate surgical approach to the treatment of ovarian cancer?

When is surgical staging indicated for ovarian cancer?

What are the components of surgical staging for ovarian cancer?

What is the role of cytoreductive surgery in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

How is risk classified in advanced ovarian cancer?

What is the role of interval debulking in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of laparoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer?

When is a secondary cytoreductive surgery indicated in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

How are patients monitored during chemotherapy for ovarian cancer?

How does chemotherapy affect future fertility and pregnancy outcomes?

What is the role of pazopanib in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What are the most effective maintenance therapies for ovarian cancer?

What is the role of bevacizumab (Avastin) in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of consolidation therapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of ERT in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of second-look laparotomy in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

How is response to therapy assessed in ovarian cancer?

What is the role of the cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) level in response to therapy assessment for ovarian cancer?

What is the role of squamous cell carcinoma antigen testing in response to therapy assessment for ovarian cancer?

What is the role of carcinoembryonic antigen testing in response to therapy assessment for ovarian cancer?

What is the role of AFP testing in response to therapy assessment for ovarian cancer?

What is the role of lysophosphatidic acid in in response to therapy assessment for ovarian cancer?

What is the role of MIB-1 testing in response to therapy assessment for ovarian cancer?

What is the role of LT (CAM) testing in response to therapy assessment for ovarian cancer?

How is recurrent ovarian cancer treated?

What is the role of PARP inhibitors in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of olaparib (Lynparza) in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of rucaparib (Rubraca) in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of niraparib (Zejula) in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is included in palliative care for ovarian cancer?

How is bowel obstruction treated in ovarian cancer?

How is ascites treated in ovarian cancer?

How is anorexia treated in ovarian cancer?

How is constipation treated in ovarian cancer?

How is anemia treated in ovarian cancer?

What is the role of hormone therapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

What is the role of targeted therapies in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

How are ovarian cysts treated?

How are ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) treated?

How are malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (GCTs) treated?

How are ovarian sex-cord stromal tumors treated?

How are ovarian carcinomas and sarcomas treated?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of ovarian cancer?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with ovarian cancer?

How is ovarian cancer prevented?

Guidelines

What are ovarian cancer screening guidelines?

Which organizations have released guidelines on genetic risk assessment for ovarian cancer?

What are the USPSTF guidelines on genetic risk assessment for ovarian cancer?

What are the NCCN guidelines on genetic risk assessment for ovarian cancer?

What are the ASCO guidelines on genetic risk assessment for ovarian cancer?

What are the ESMO guidelines on genetic risk assessment for ovarian cancer?

What are the ACOG guidelines on genetic risk assessment for ovarian cancer?

What are the SGO guidelines on genetic risk assessment for ovarian cancer?

What are the NCCN guidelines on ovarian cancer prevention?

What are the SGO guidelines on ovarian cancer prevention?

What are the ACOG criteria for ovarian cancer workup?

What are the guidelines on ovarian cancer workup?

Which staging systems are used for ovarian cancer?

What are the NCCN guidelines on primary treatment of ovarian cancer?

What are the SGO/ASCO guidelines on neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for ovarian cancer?

What are the NCCN guidelines on chemotherapy for ovarian cancer?

What are the SGO guidelines on ovarian cancer surveillance?

What are the NCCN guidelines on ovarian cancer surveillance?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of ovarian cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Antiemetics are used in the treatment of Ovarian Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Cytoprotective Agents are used in the treatment of Ovarian Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class PARP Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Ovarian Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic Agents are used in the treatment of Ovarian Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Chemotherapy agents are used in the treatment of Ovarian Cancer?