Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Questions & Answers

Updated: May 03, 2019
  • Author: Kristi A Tough DeSapri, MD; Chief Editor: Nicole W Karjane, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and who is at high risk for developing the disorder?

Which infectious agents are implicated in the pathogenies of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

How is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) diagnosed?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the disease course of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the role of laparoscopy in the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

In which setting are most patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) treated?

According to the CDC guidelines, when is empiric antibiotic therapy indicated for treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What are the stages of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

How do microorganisms ascend to the upper female genital tract in the pathophysiology of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the role of sexual intercourse in the pathogenesis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What factors influence the degree of inflammation that occurs in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What are pregnancy-related factors in the pathophysiology of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the role of genetics in the pathophysiology of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which infectious agents are the most common causes of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What percentage of untreated chlamydial or gonorrheal infections progress to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What do culture specimens demonstrate regarding the etiology of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which organisms are involved in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the role of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in the etiology of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What comorbidity is more likely to occur in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and Trichomonas infections?

Why does HIV infection increase the risk of developing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the role of microbial virulence in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What are the risk factors for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

How do contraceptives affect the incidence and severity of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which infectious agents are more common in women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) who use IUDs?

What is the role of bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) in the etiology of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in the US?

What is the global incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What are serious complications of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the incidence of chronic pelvic pain in patients with a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the risk of impaired fertility in women with a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the risk of ectopic pregnancy in women with a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

How frequent is tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) in women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and how does it affect the disease course?

How frequently does pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) result in hospitalization?

For which disorders is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) an independent risk factor?

What education should be given to women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What counseling should women receive after treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Where can patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) find information about the condition?

Presentation

What are the risk factors for developing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which factors decrease the risk for developing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What are the signs and symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

How common is abnormal vaginal discharge in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the CDC criteria for diagnosing and treating pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which findings suggest peritonitis in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the most sensitive physical finding for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which variables have been found to be positive predictors for the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which findings suggest Fitz-Hugh?Curtis syndrome in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

DDX

How is acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) diagnosed?

When might a patient with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) be asymptomatic?

How often do patients with atypical presentations of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) meet the objective criteria for upper tract infection on laparoscopic exam?

When is empiric treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) indicated?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

When is a pregnancy test indicated in women with suspected pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

How long does pain from pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) last?

When do most patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) show clinical response after initiation of antibiotic therapy?

What are the differential diagnoses for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

Workup

When should procedures be performed to improve the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which procedures may be performed in the workup of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which procedure is the criterion standard for the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and which lab studies can be used to support the diagnosis?

When is a pregnancy test performed in the workup of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the role of a CBC in the workup of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which tests may be used to increase the specificity for a diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the role of serologic testing in the workup of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which tests may be useful in the workup of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the role of transvaginal ultrasonography in the workup of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is specificity and sensitivity of bedside ultrasonography for the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the sensitivity and specificity of transvaginal ultrasonography in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and what are helpful findings?

How is pelvic ultrasonographic scanning used in the workup of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which ultrasonographic results suggest pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the specificity of thickening of the endometrium for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

How are hydrosalpinx and pyosalpinx distinguished during ultrasonographic scanning for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which ultrasonographic findings suggest tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOAs) in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the minimum criteria for the laparoscopic diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which laparoscopic findings suggest pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What are the drawbacks of laparoscopy for the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the role of CT in the workup of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which CT scan findings suggest pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which CT scan findings suggest tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which CT scan findings confirm the diagnosis of tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) in women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which findings on MRI suggests hydrosalpinx in women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which findings on MRI suggest tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOAs) in women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the role of culdocentesis in the workup of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

How is culdocentesis performed in the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which culdocentesis findings suggest pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the role of endometrial biopsy in the workup of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What are the CDC recommendations for endometrial biopsy in the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which endometrial biopsy findings suggest pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Treatment

What are the goals for treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What public health measures should be taken during the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which factors increase the likelihood of preservation of fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the success rate of antibiotic therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What are the CDC recommendations for continued use of IUDs in women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What is the adherence to clinical guidelines for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

When should women receiving treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) be reevaluated?

What is the treatment for tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOAs) that do not resolve with antibiotic therapy?

What are the advantages of laparoscopy in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

When is laparotomy indicated in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What are the surgical treatment options for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

How should sexual partners of women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) be treated?

Which infections are likely in the partner of a woman with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

How should women with chlamydial or gonococcal infection and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) be monitored following treatment?

What measures reduce the incidence and prevalence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

How should women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) be counseled?

What are the USPSTF recommendations for screening for chlamydial infection?

What factors increase the risk of noncompliance with treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

When is hospitalization indicated for treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

How are HIV-positive individuals with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) treated?

How long after initiation of antibiotic therapy is clinical response seen in patients treated for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What should be the basis for hospital admission decisions of HIV-infected patients and adolescents with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

When should antibiotic therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) be initiated?

What are the RCOG recommendations for treating women with HIV infection and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

How effective is antibiotic therapy in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

When can patients on an IV regimen be transitioned to oral antibiotics for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

When should patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) be reevaluated after initiation of treatment?

What are the CDC recommended antibiotic regimens for outpatient treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What are the CDC recommended antibiotic regimens for inpatient treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What additional information should be considered regarding antibiotic therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Which antibiotics can be used in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) who are allergic to cephalosporins?

What is the role of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

What are alternative regimens in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Medications

What should antibiotic therapy of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) include and which antibiotics should be used?

Which medications in the drug class Uricosuric Agents are used in the treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Penicillins, Amino are used in the treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Aminoglycosides are used in the treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics, Other are used in the treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Tetracyclines are used in the treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Cephalosporins, 2nd Generation are used in the treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Cephalosporins, 3rd Generation are used in the treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Macrolides are used in the treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?