Testicular Cancer Follow-up

Updated: Aug 17, 2021
  • Author: Kush Sachdeva, MD; Chief Editor: E Jason Abel, MD  more...
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Secondary malignancy

Secondary malignancies are the most common cause of death in testicular cancer survivors. A second testicular cancer develops in 1% to 2% of testicular cancer survivors.

Solid tumors

A followup study of more than 40,000 testicular cancer survivors in Europe and North America showed that the relative risk of developing a secondary tumor was 1.9 (95% confidence index, 1.8 to 2.1) for 10 years and 1.7 for 35 years. [14] Cancers of the lung, colon, bladder, pancreas, stomach, mesothelioma, and esophagus were found. Testicular cancer patients who were treated with radiation alone were at higher risk of having bladder, stomach, pancreas, and kidney cancers.


Patients treated with regimens that contain etoposide have an increased risk of developing leukemia, mainly of the myeloid lineage. In such cases, the Hallmark chromosomal translocation involving the long arm of chromosome 11 (11q23) occurs 2 to 3 years following treatment. Leukemia develops in 16 per 10,000 patients treated with standard-dose chemotherapy.