Testicular Cancer Questions & Answers

Updated: Aug 17, 2021
  • Author: Kush Sachdeva, MD; Chief Editor: E Jason Abel, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is the incidence of testicular cancer?

What are common presenting signs of testicular cancer?

What is included in the evaluation for testicular cancer?

How is initial therapy for testicular cancer selected?

What are the options for curative treatment of testicular cancer?

What has been shown to improve the prognosis of testicular cancer?

What is the cause of testicular cancer?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of testicular cancer?

What is the pathophysiology of testicular cancer?

What is the pathophysiology of malignant transformation of germ cells in testicular cancer?

What is the prevalence of testicular cancer in the US?

What is the global prevalence of testicular cancer?

What are the racial predilections of testicular cancer?

How does the incidence of testicular cancer vary by age?

What is the prognosis of testicular cancer?

Presentation

Which history is characteristic of testicular cancer?

Which physical finding indicates testicular cancer?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of a testicular mass?

How is the physical exam of the testicles performed for testicular cancer?

What causes testicular cancer?

What is the role of cryptorchidism in the etiology of testicular cancer?

What is the risk for a germ cell tumor in men with a history of testicular cancer?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of testicular cancer?

What is the role of family-history in the etiology of testicular cancer?

What is the role of infertility in the etiology of testicular cancer?

Which environmental exposures increase the risk for testicular cancer?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of testicular cancer?

What are the differential diagnoses for Testicular Cancer?

Workup

What is included in the evaluation of suspected testicular cancer?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of testicular cancer?

What is the role of imaging following a diagnosis of testicular cancer?

What is the role of radical inguinal orchiectomy in the workup of testicular cancer?

What are the benefits of intraoperative testicular and paratesticular frozen section assessments in the evaluation of testicular cancer?

What is the role of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in the workup of testicular cancer?

How are germ cell tumors in testicular cancer categorized?

What is the World Health Organization histologic classification of malignant testicular germ cell tumors?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of seminomas in testicular cancer?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of nonseminomas in testicular cancer?

How is testicular cancer staged?

What are the classifications for primary tumor (pT) after radical orchiectomy in testicular cancer?

What is the staging for regional lymph node involvement in testicular cancer?

What is the classification for distant metastasis (M) in testicular cancer?

How is testicular cancer staged by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)?

What are the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages for testicular cancer?

How is risk classification determined for testicular cancer?

What are the criteria for good-risk nonseminoma in testicular cancer?

What are the criteria for intermediate-risk nonseminoma in testicular cancer?

What are the criteria for poor-risk nonseminoma in testicular cancer?

What are the criteria for good-risk seminoma in testicular cancer?

What are the criteria for intermediate-risk seminoma in testicular cancer?

Which lab studies are performed in the workup of testicular cancer?

Which lab study findings suggest testicular cancer?

Which serum alpha-fetoprotein features suggest testicular cancer?

Which chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) features suggest testicular cancer?

Which lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) features suggest testicular cancer?

Treatment

How should tumors with both seminoma and nonseminoma elements be treated in testicular cancer?

How is initial therapy for testicular cancer selected?

What is the recommended treatment approach for testicular cancer recommended by NCCN?

What are the treatment options for clinical stage I seminomas in testicular cancer?

What is the recommended treatment for seminoma stage IA, IB testicular cancer?

What is the role of adjuvant radiation therapy in the treatment of seminoma stage IA, IB testicular cancer?

What is the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of seminoma stage IA, IB testicular cancer?

What are risk factors for relapse in testicular cancer?

How is stage IS seminoma testicular cancer defined?

How is seminoma stage IIA testicular cancer treated?

How is seminoma stage IIB testicular cancer treated?

How is stage IIC and III seminoma testicular cancer treated?

What is included in surveillance following chemotherapy for seminoma stage IIB, IIC, III testicular cancer?

What are treatment options for nonseminoma stage IA, IB, IS testicular cancer?

What are treatment options for nonseminoma stage IA testicular cancer?

What are treatment options for nonseminoma stage IB testicular cancer?

What are treatment options for nonseminoma stage IS testicular cancer?

What are treatment options for nonseminoma stage IIA, IIB testicular cancer?

What are the treatment options for patients with stage IIC and III nonseminoma testicular cancer?

What are cure rates for nonseminoma testicular cancer?

How is testicular cancer with brain metastases treated?

How is stage IIC and III nonseminoma testicular cancer managed following chemotherapy?

When is salvage chemotherapy indicated in the management of testicular cancer?

How are patients with testicular cancer categorized into favorable and unfavorable prognostic groups?

What is the salvage treatment for testicular cancer with a favorable prognosis?

What is the salvage treatment for testicular cancer with an unfavorable prognosis?

When is high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue indicated in the treatment of testicular cancer?

When is palliative treatment indicated for testicular cancer?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of testicular cancer?

What are the possible types of testicular cancer treatment-related toxicity?

What are the pulmonary complications of testicular cancer treatment?

What are the renal complications of testicular cancer treatment?

What causes cardiovascular complications in testicular cancer?

What is the effect of treatment for testicular cancer on fertility?

How are hematological complications in testicular cancer prevented?

What is the prognosis of bone loss in patients with testicular cancer?

What are possible complication of testicular cancer?

What is the role of sperm banking in the management of testicular cancer?

Guidelines

Which organizations have released guidelines on testicular cancer?

What are the guidelines on the diagnosis and staging of testicular cancer?

What are the guidelines on the treatment of stage I testicular seminoma?

What are the guidelines on treatment of stage II testicular seminoma?

What are the NCCN recommendations for surveillance of testicular seminoma stage I?

What are the NCCN recommendations for surveillance of stage II testicular seminoma?

What are the recommendations for treatment of stage I nonseminoma testicular cancer?

What are the guidelines for the treatment of stage 1 nonseminoma testicular cancer without risk factors?

What are the guidelines for treatment of nonseminoma testicular cancer with risk factors?

What are the guidelines on the treatment of stage II and III nonseminoma testicular cancer?

What are the NCCN guidelines for surveillance of patients with nonseminoma testicular cancer?

What is the NCCN surveillance schedule for stage IA nonseminoma testicular cancer?

What is the NCCN surveillance schedule for clinical stage IB nonseminoma National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN)?

What is the NCCN surveillance schedule for stage IB nonseminoma testicular cancer following adjuvant BEP chemotherapy?

What is the NCCN surveillance schedule for stage II-III nonseminoma testicular cancer that has shown a complete response to chemotherapy?

What is NCCN surveillance schedule in pathologic stage IIA-B nonseminoma testicular cancer following primary RPLND and adjuvant chemotherapy?

What is NCCN surveillance schedule in pathologic stage IIA-B nonseminoma testicular cancer following primary RPLND only?

Medications

How are chemotherapy regimens for testicular cancer categorized?

What is the role of carboplatin in the treatment of testicular cancer?

What is the chemotherapy regimens for BEP in the treatment of testicular cancer?

What are the regimen for EP in the treatment of testicular cancer?

What is the regimen for VIP in the treatment of testicular cancer?

What is the regimen for VeIP in the treatment of testicular cancer?

What is the regimen for TIP in the treatment of testicular cancer?

What is the regimen for GEMOX in the treatment of testicular cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Antidote, Cyclosphosphamide-induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis are used in the treatment of Testicular Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic Agent, Antimetabolites are used in the treatment of Testicular Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic Agent, Vinca Alkaloids are used in the treatment of Testicular Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic Agents, Antimicrotubular are used in the treatment of Testicular Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic Agent, Alkylating Agents are used in the treatment of Testicular Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic Agent, Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Testicular Cancer?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic Agent, Topoisomerase II Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Testicular Cancer?

Follow-up

What are common causes of death in survivors of testicular cancer?

What is the risk of developing secondary solid tumors in patients with testicular cancer?

What factor increases the risk for leukemia in patients with testicular cancer?