Tumor Lysis Syndrome Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Dec 07, 2018
  • Author: Alan K Ikeda, MD; Chief Editor: Wafik S El-Deiry, MD, PhD  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

Patients with cancer are at increased risk of renal failure from etiologies other than tumor lysis syndrome. [19] Prerenal causes include volume depletion from anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, and bleeding. Pelvic or retroperitoneal masses can lead to kidney failure from postrenal urinary tract obstruction.

Renal parenchymal disorders include the following:

  • Tumor infiltration

  • Myeloma kidney

  • Drug nephrotoxicity from chemotherapeutic agents or antibiotics

  • Radiocontrast nephropathy

  • Vasculitis

  • Cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis

The combination of volume depletion, hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia strongly support the diagnosis of tumor lysis syndrome over other causes.

Differential Diagnoses