Tumor Lysis Syndrome Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Oct 04, 2022
  • Author: Alan K Ikeda, MD; Chief Editor: Wafik S El-Deiry, MD, PhD  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

Patients with cancer are at increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) from etiologies other than tumor lysis syndrome. [23] Prerenal causes include volume depletion from anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, and bleeding. Pelvic or retroperitoneal masses can lead to AKI from postrenal urinary tract obstruction.

Renal parenchymal disorders include the following:

  • Tumor infiltration
  • Myeloma kidney
  • Drug nephrotoxicity from chemotherapeutic agents or antibiotics
  • Radiocontrast nephropathy
  • Vasculitis
  • Cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis

The combination of volume depletion, hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia strongly support the diagnosis of tumor lysis syndrome over other causes.

Differential Diagnoses