Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Questions & Answers

Updated: Feb 06, 2018
  • Author: Ponnandai S Somasundar, MD, MPH, FACS; Chief Editor: Neetu Radhakrishnan, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

How is papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) diagnosed and treated?

Where can patient education resources be found for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the pathophysiology of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of the BRAF gene in the pathophysiology of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of radiation exposure in the pathophysiology of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What causes papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What types of radiation exposure increase the risk for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of iodine deficiency in the etiology of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

Which familial syndromes increase the risk for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the prevalence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the mortality rates for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the racial predilections of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

How does the prevalence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) vary by age?

What is the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the progression of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) if left untreated?

What are the mortality rates of children and adolescents with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are risk factors for mortality in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

How does serum thyroglobulin doubling time affect the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are risk factors for metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of gene expression signatures in determining the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

How does the histologic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) affect prognosis?

Why does the American Thyroid Association recommend reclassification of the encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (eFVPTC)?

What is the prognosis of diffuse sclerosing papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSPTC)?

Presentation

Which clinical history is characteristic of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

DDX

What is the role of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in the etiology of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma?

Workup

What is included in the workup of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

When is assessment of the RET proto-oncogene expression indicated in the workup of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

Which procedures are performed in the workup of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of thyroid function studies in the workup of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression test in the workup of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of thyroid ultrasound in the workup of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of thyroid scintigraphy in the workup of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the workup of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) on immunohistochemistry?

Which histologic finding may indicate lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of the Afirma gene expression classifier (GEC) test in the workup of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

How is encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC) distinguished from conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

How is papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) staged?

What is the staging for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients younger than 45 years?

What is the staging for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients aged 45 years and older?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

When is total thyroidectomy indicated in the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the benefits of total thyroidectomy for the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the surgical techniques used to perform total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of central neck dissection in the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are possible complications of surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of radioiodine therapy in the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

How is radioiodine therapy administered for the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the duration of radioiodine therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the efficacy of adjuvant radioiodine therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What guidelines of safe practices after radioiodine treatment are available for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are potential adverse effects of radioiodine therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous ethanol injection in the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

Which novel agents are under investigation for the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the American College of Radiology recommendations for treatment of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial in the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is the long-term monitoring for radioiodine scintiscan in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is included in long-term monitoring of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

When are thyroid hormone suppression tests indicated following surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What is included in long-term monitoring of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) following radioactive iodine ablation and a negative thyroid ultrasound?

When is thyroid hormone replacement therapy indicated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

Guidelines

What are the guidelines for fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

Which organizations have released guidelines for the diagnosis and management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the guidelines for the evaluation of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the AACE/AME/ETA guidelines for fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the ATA and NCCN guidelines for fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the guidelines for use of serum calcitonin assay and radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the subtypes and approximate frequencies of differentiated thyroid cancers?

What are the benefits of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the ultrasound (US) features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the ultrasound (US) features of follicular thyroid cancer?

What are the ultrasound (US) features of benign thyroid lesions?

What is the Bethesda system for thyroid cytopathology used in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

When is an iodine-123 (123I) thyroid scan indicated in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the NCCN guidelines for further testing following FNAB diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the NCCN treatment guidelines for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for total thyroidectomy in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the NCCN guidelines for either total thyroidectomy or lobectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the NCCN guidelines for thyroidectomy following a lobectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the ATA guidelines for near-total or total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

What are the guidelines for therapeutic neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, VEGF Inhibitor are used in the treatment of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic agents are used in the treatment of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma?

Which medications in the drug class Antithyroid agents are used in the treatment of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma?

Which medications in the drug class Thyroid products are used in the treatment of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma?