Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome Questions & Answers

Updated: Aug 14, 2019
  • Author: Luigi Santacroce, MD; Chief Editor: N Joseph Espat, MD, MS, FACS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is malignant carcinoid syndrome?

How is malignant carcinoid syndrome diagnosed?

How is malignant carcinoid syndrome treated?

When was malignant carcinoid syndrome first identified?

What is the pathophysiology of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What are the characteristics of the primary tumors causing malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the US prevalence of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the global prevalence of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What are the sexual predilections of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

Which physical findings are characteristic of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What causes malignant carcinoid syndrome?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

Which imaging modalities are performed in the workup of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What are the NCCN guidelines for imaging in the workup of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the role of scintigraphy in the workup of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the role of barium studies in the workup of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the role of PET scanning in the workup of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the role of provocation tests in the workup of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the role of biopsy in the workup of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the role of endoscopy in the workup of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

How is malignant carcinoid syndrome staged?

Treatment

What is the role of systemic therapy in the treatment of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the role of somatostatin analogs in the treatment of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the role of telostristat ethyl (Xermelo) in the treatment of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

Which types of medications may be used in the treatment of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with malignant carcinoid syndrome?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha2-adrenergic agonists are used in the treatment of Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class H2-receptor antagonists are used in the treatment of Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class H1 antihistamines are used in the treatment of Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Interferons are used in the treatment of Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic agents are used in the treatment of Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Antisecretory/GI agents are used in the treatment of Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome?

Follow-up

What are clinical considerations in the treatment of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

How are exacerbations of malignant carcinoid syndrome avoided?

What are the possible complications of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is the prognosis of malignant carcinoid syndrome?

What is included in patient education about malignant carcinoid syndrome?