Tardive Dystonia Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 30, 2018
  • Author: Daniel Schneider, MD, MA; Chief Editor: Randon S Welton, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is tardive dystonia?

What are the signs and symptoms of tardive dystonia?

How is tardive dystonia diagnosed?

What is included in the routine evaluation of tardive dystonia?

What is the initial treatment for tardive dystonia?

What are the treatment options for tardive dystonia?

What is tardive dystonia?

Which body parts are commonly affected by tardive dystonia?

How is tardive dystonia categorized?

What are the Burke criteria for diagnosis of tardive dystonia?

How are tardive dystonia and tardive dyskinesia differentiated?

What is the pathophysiology of tardive dystonia?

What is the role of genetics in the pathophysiology of tardive dystonia?

What is the role of neuropharmacologic changes in the pathophysiology of tardive dystonia?

What are the risk factors for tardive dystonia?

What is the role of antipsychotic medications in the etiology of tardive dystonia?

What is the prevalence of tardive dystonia?

How does the prevalence of tardive dystonia vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of tardive dystonia vary by age?

What is the prognosis of tardive dystonia?

What is the morbidity of tardive dystonia?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of tardive dystonia?

How is tardive dystonia diagnosed?

What is included in a movement disorder exam for tardive dystonia?

How is dystonia characterized in tardive dystonia?

What is included in the physical and neurologic exam for tardive dystonia?

Which findings on a mental status exam (MSE) are characteristic of tardive dystonia?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of tardive dystonia?

What are the differential diagnoses for Tardive Dystonia?

Workup

How is tardive dystonia differentiated from other causes of dystonia?

Which lab tests and imaging studies are included in the routine evaluation of tardive dystonia?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of tardive dystonia?

Which pathological findings are characteristic of tardive dystonia?

Treatment

What is the initial treatment for tardive dystonia?

What are the pharmacological treatment options for tardive dystonia?

What is the role of electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of tardive dystonia?

What are the nonpharmacologic treatment options for tardive dystonia?

What is the role of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of tardive dystonia?

When is activity modification indicated in the treatment of tardive dystonia?

How is tardive dystonia prevented?

Medications

Which medications are used to treat tardive dystonia?

Which medications in the drug class Benzodiazepines are used in the treatment of Tardive Dystonia?

Which medications in the drug class Acetylcholine receptor inhibitors are used in the treatment of Tardive Dystonia?

Which medications in the drug class Anticholinergic agents are used in the treatment of Tardive Dystonia?

Which medications in the drug class Atypical antipsychotics (serotonin dopamine receptor antagonists) are used in the treatment of Tardive Dystonia?

Which medications in the drug class Dopamine-depleting agents are used in the treatment of Tardive Dystonia?