Schizophrenia Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 16, 2018
  • Author: Frances R Frankenburg, MD; Chief Editor: Glen L Xiong, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is schizophrenia?

What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?

What are the DSM-5 criteria for schizophrenia?

How is schizophrenia managed?

How does impaired cognition affect patients with schizophrenia?

Which disorders are included in the differential diagnoses of schizophrenia?

What are the treatment options for schizophrenia?

What are the DSM-5 criteria for schizophrenia?

According to the DSM-5, how is a diagnosis of schizophrenia further specified?

Which abnormalities are found in schizophrenia?

What are neurologic findings of schizophrenia?

What is the role of the neurotransmitter system in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia?

What is the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia?

What is the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia?

What causes schizophrenia?

Is schizophrenia a genetic disorder?

What are the known gene variants of schizophrenia?

Which genetic loci are linked to schizophrenia?

What is the role of the COMT gene in schizophrenia?

What is the role of the RELN gene in schizophrenia?

What is the role of the NOS1AP gene in schizophrenia?

What is the role of the GRM3 gene in schizophrenia?

Which genetic structures increase the risk for schizophrenia?

Which genetic loci may increase the risk for neurologic or psychiatric disorders?

Which neurodevelopmental genes may increase the risk for schizophrenia?

What is the cause of schizophrenia when there is no family history of the disorder?

Is there evidence of a common genetic variation that causes schizophrenia?

How much of schizophrenia risk is due to genetic factors?

Which perinatal factors may increase the risk of developing schizophrenia?

Does marijuana use increase the risk of developing schizophrenia?

What is the prevalence of schizophrenia?

At what age does onset of schizophrenia usually occur?

Does the prevalence of schizophrenia differ among racial groups?

Is schizophrenia more common in men or women?

What factors affect the prognosis of schizophrenia?

Do the symptoms of schizophrenia improve over time?

What is the socioeconomic impact of schizophrenia?

Is the mortality rate increased in patients with schizophrenia?

Is breast cancer more common in women with schizophrenia?

What are the benefits of patient education in schizophrenia?

What patient education resources exist for schizophrenia?

Presentation

What should be the focus of family and medical history in suspected schizophrenia?

What personal history may indicate schizophrenia?

What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?

Are there physical exam findings that indicate schizophrenia?

What observations on a mental status exam indicate schizophrenia?

Is substance abuse a common comorbidity of schizophrenia?

Which risks are increased in comorbid substance abuse and schizophrenia?

Do drug-caused episodes of psychosis increase the risk of developing schizophrenia?

What are the treatment options for comorbid substance abuse and schizophrenia?

Are depression and schizophrenia comorbid?

Are anxiety disorders and schizophrenia comorbid?

How is anxiety treated in patients with schizophrenia?

Are obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia comorbid?

Are patients with schizophrenia at increased risk for violence?

DDX

Which disorders should be considered in the differential diagnoses of schizophrenia?

How is schizophrenia differentiated from bipolar affective disorder (manic-depressive illness)?

How is schizophrenia differentiated from delusional disorder?

How is schizophrenia differentiated from schizotypal personality disorders?

How is schizophrenia differentiated from paranoid personality disorder?

How is schizophrenia differentiated from brain tumors?

How is schizophrenia differentiated from subdural hematomas?

How is schizophrenia differentiated from idiopathic calcification of the basal ganglia?

How is schizophrenia differentiated from Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)?

How is schizophrenia differentiated from porphyrias?

Which metabolic or endocrine disorders should be included in the differential diagnoses of schizophrenia?

Which infectious diseases should be included in the differential diagnoses of schizophrenia?

How is neurosyphilis differentiated from schizophrenia?

How is HIV infection differentiated from schizophrenia?

Can cerebral abscesses cause psychotic symptoms?

Can chronic Lyme disease cause psychotic symptoms?

Should Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease be included in the differential diagnoses of schizophrenia?

Should multiple sclerosis be considered in the differential diagnoses of schizophrenia?

Should Huntington disease be considered in the differential diagnoses of schizophrenia?

Should Alzheimer disease be considered in the differential diagnoses of schizophrenia?

Should dementia with Lewy bodies be considered in the differential diagnoses of schizophrenia?

Should lipid storage disorders be considered in the differential diagnoses of schizophrenia?

How is encephalitis differentiated from schizophrenia?

Which seizure disorders might be considered in the differential diagnoses of schizophrenia?

How is schizophrenia differentiated from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How is schizophrenia differentiated from systemic vasculitides?

Should heavy metal toxicity be included in the differential diagnoses of schizophrenia?

Which drugs are associated with mental status changes?

Which vitamin deficiencies may cause mental status changes?

What are the differential diagnoses for Schizophrenia?

Workup

What history details should be considered in the diagnosis of schizophrenia?

Are physical exam findings helpful in the diagnosis of schizophrenia?

What is the role of neurologic exam in the management of schizophrenia?

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis and management of schizophrenia?

Treatment

How is schizophrenia treated?

What is the role of medical care in the management of schizophrenia?

What is the effect of antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medications on schizophrenia?

What factors should be considered in the selection of medications for the management of schizophrenia?

When is hospitalization (in-patient treatment) indicated in the treatment of schizophrenia?

Are patients with schizophrenia able to provide informed consent?

Are patients with schizophrenia eligible for Medicare and Medicaid?

What is the impact of the American Affordable Care Act (ACA) on the care of schizophrenia?

What warnings should be given prior to treatment with antipsychotic medications for schizophrenia?

What are first- and second-generation antipsychotics used in the management of schizophrenia?

How are antipsychotic agents administered in the treatment of schizophrenia?

What are the adverse effects of antipsychotic drugs used to manage schizophrenia?

Are certain antipsychotic drugs more effective in managing the symptoms of schizophrenia?

Is injectable or oral administration of antipsychotic agents more effective for schizophrenia?

Which antipsychotic agents are patients with schizophrenia most likely to stop taking?

Is olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone more effective for treatment of schizophrenia?

What are The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) of the University of Maryland recommendations for the initial treatment of schizophrenia?

Does early treatment of schizophrenia prevent long-term disability?

Which is the antipsychotic drug of choice for schizophrenia?

Is using an algorithm for the treatment of schizophrenia effective?

Is multidrug therapy safe in the treatment of schizophrenia?

How effective is quetiapine in the treatment of schizophrenia?

What recommendations have been provided by The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) of the University of Maryland?

How is medication compliance optimized for schizophrenia?

What are the possible adverse effects of antipsychotic therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia?

Is akathisia a possible adverse effect of antipsychotic therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia?

Is dystonia a possible adverse effect of antipsychotic therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia?

Is hyperprolactinemia a possible adverse effect of antipsychotic therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia?

Is neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) a possible adverse effect of antipsychotic therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia?

Is parkinsonism a possible adverse effect of antipsychotic therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia?

Is tardive dyskinesia (TD) a possible adverse effect of antipsychotic therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia?

What are the anticholinergic side effects of antipsychotics used to manage schizophrenia?

How do antipsychotic agents affect the QT interval in patients with schizophrenia?

Which antipsychotic agents cause altered glucose, lipid metabolism, and weight gain in patients with schizophrenia?

How do antipsychotic agents affect glucose, lipid metabolism, and weight gain in patients with schizophrenia?

Can antipsychotic agents cause esophageal dysmotility and orthostatic hypotension in patients with schizophrenia?

Can antipsychotic agents cause venous thromboembolism in patients with schizophrenia?

What are the risks of risperidone in children and adolescents with schizophrenia?

What are neurotoxic effects of antipsychotic therapy in patients with schizophrenia?

How is monitoring of blood medication levels useful in the management of schizophrenia?

When are anticholinergic agents used in the treatment of schizophrenia?

Which medications are used as adjunct therapy for schizophrenia?

Are psychosocial interventions used in the management of schizophrenia?

What are the goals of psychosocial treatment for schizophrenia?

Is psychosocial treatment for schizophrenia effective?

What is cognitive remediation for schizophrenia?

What are the cognitive remediation models used for schizophrenia?

When is cognitive remediation most effective in patients with schizophrenia?

Is cognitive remediation therapy effective for schizophrenia?

Is cognitive therapy effective as standalone treatment for schizophrenia?

What is Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS)?

How effective is vocational rehabilitation for schizophrenia?

What is assertive community treatment for schizophrenia?

What are the benefits of family interventions for schizophrenia?

Should patients with schizophrenia be encouraged to stop smoking?

What is the role of diet and exercise in the treatment of schizophrenia?

Does the prognosis of schizophrenia improve with early detection and intervention?

What is the role of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of schizophrenia?

Medications

What is the role of antipsychotic medications in the treatment of schizophrenia?

Which medications in the drug class Antipsychotics, 1st Generation are used in the treatment of Schizophrenia?

Which medications in the drug class Antipsychotics, 2nd Generation are used in the treatment of Schizophrenia?

Which medications in the drug class Serotonin-Dopamine Activity Modulators are used in the treatment of Schizophrenia?