Delirium Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 25, 2019
  • Author: Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan, MD, MBBS, MPH, MHA; Chief Editor: Glen L Xiong, MD  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What is the definition of delirium?

What are the signs and symptoms of delirium?

What are the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for delirium?

What are psychometric measures used to identify delirium?

What are the treatment options for delirium?

What is delirium?

What causes delirium?

What role does acetylcholine play in the pathogenesis of delirium?

What is the role of dopamine in the pathogenesis of delirium?

What is the role of serotonin in the pathogenesis of delirium?

What is the role of role gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the pathogenesis of delirium?

What is the role of cortisol and beta-endorphins in the pathogenesis of delirium?

What is the role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of delirium?

What is the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of delirium?

What is the role of stress in the pathogenesis of delirium?

What is the role of neuronal pathways in the pathogenesis of delirium?

What are the mortality rates for delirium?

What is the prognosis of delirium in cardiac critical illnesses?

What is the incidence of delirium in the US?

How does the incidence of delirium vary by age?

Presentation

Who can provide patient history when delirium is suspected?

Why should a patient with suspected delirium never be left unattended?

How is delirium differentiated from depression?

How is mental status assessed in suspected delirium?

What are the main symptoms of delirium?

What are neurological symptoms of delirium?

What do the symptoms of hyperactive delirium differ from those of hypoactive delirium?

What does delirium suggest in elderly patients?

What is subsyndromal delirium?

What is the prodromal phase of delirium?

Which tests should be included in the physical exam for delirium?

What are the DSM-5 criteria for delirium?

Which instruments can be used in the diagnosis of delirium?

How is delirium symptom severity assessed?

How are medical records used in the diagnosis of delirium?

Which instruments can be used to assess delirium in hospitalized patients?

What causes delirium?

What are the risk factors for delirium?

What are CNS structural changes that can contribute to delirium?

What are metabolic causes of delirium?

What are infectious causes of delirium?

Which substances and medication may cause delirium?

What are the surgical causes of delirium?

What is a common risk factor for delirium in the elderly?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses for delirium?

What are the differential diagnoses for Delirium?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of delirium?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of delirium?

Which supplemental tests are performed in the workup of delirium?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for delirium?

Which specialist consultations are required for the management of delirium?

Guidelines

What are the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guidelines for risk reduction and management of delirium?

Medications

Which medications are used to treat delirium?

Which medications in the drug class Hypnotic, Miscellaneous are used in the treatment of Delirium?

Which medications in the drug class Vitamins are used in the treatment of Delirium?

Which medications in the drug class Benzodiazepines are used in the treatment of Delirium?

Which medications in the drug class Antipsychotics are used in the treatment of Delirium?

Follow-up

What care is needed following treatment of delirium?

What assessment is needed following treatment of delirium?

How is delirium prevented?

What are possible complications of delirium?

What is the prognosis of delirium?

What education about delirium should patients and families receive?