Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 22, 2019
  • Author: Himanshu Wickramasinghe, MD, MBBS; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How do symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) begin?

What are nocturnal symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the daytime symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What should be evaluated in all patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which physical findings suggest obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) diagnosed?

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

When is a thyrotropin test indicated in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the AASM guidelines for polysomnography in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How does severity of obstructive sleep apnea affect treatment options?

What are the conservative measures used to manage or prevent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are mechanical measures used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of medications in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the surgical options for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are manifestations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is characteristic of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are significant complications of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which breathing events are evaluated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the AASM definition of apnea?

What are the AASM guidelines for scoring hypopneas in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of respiratory effort–related arousal (RERA) measurement in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How are respiratory effort–related arousals (RERAs) measured in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) distinguished from central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is a sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) continuum?

What was the initial description of sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) continuum?

How does disease progress on the sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) continuum?

What is the disease progression of untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What causes obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of transmural pressure in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Where does upper airway (UA) obstruction occur in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of anatomy in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of neuromuscular activity in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of central breathing instability in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which static factors are involved in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which dynamic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of the Bernoulli effect in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Why is obesity a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the epidemiologic distribution for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the characteristics of apnea clusters in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the underlying mechanism for apnea clusters in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of oxygen desaturation in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the clinical implications of oxygen desaturation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) linked to cardiovascular disease?

What are the nonstructural risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which factors are involved in the etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which etiological structural factors are related to craniofacial bony anatomy in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which etiological structural factors are related to nasal obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

When should craniofacial abnormalities be considered in the etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the basis of craniofacial risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the differences in cranial and facial indices in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of familial factors in the etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which conditions are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the etiological relationship between hypothyroidism and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which neurologic syndromes are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the etiological relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cerebrovascular disease?

What is the etiological relationship between acromegaly and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which environmental exposures are associated with the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which gene variants have been associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of gene glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of the 5HT2A gene in the etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What criteria are used to identify genetic associations with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in the US?

What is the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the US?

What is the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children in the US?

What is the global prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How does the incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) vary by age?

How does the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) vary by sex?

How does menopause affect the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among women?

How do the findings of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) vary by sex?

What are the racial predilections of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the short-term prognosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the long-term prognosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the mortality rate for sleep apnea (OSA)?

What were the results of the Sleep Heart Health Study on the effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on mortality?

In which age groups is the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) mortality risk greatest?

What is the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular death?

How does continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) mitigate the mortality risk in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

At what time of day are patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) at highest risk of sudden death?

What is the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and pulmonary hypertension?

What cardiovascular abnormality is caused by oxygen desaturation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease?

What is the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and motor vehicle accidents?

What can clinicians predict if a patient with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is at higher risk for motor vehicle accidents?

What scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) indicate an increased risk for motor vehicle accidents due to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the increased risk for auto accidents in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How accurate is simulator performance in predicting risk of auto accidents in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the effect of treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on motor vehicle accident risk?

What are the crash rates among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the guidelines regarding driving for the average patient with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What information about obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) should patients be given?

Presentation

How long after the onset of symptoms are patients typically evaluated for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the nocturnal symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the daytime symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the most common and difficult symptom of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to treat?

What is the role of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How does continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) affect excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How do patients characterize excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is daytime functioning affected in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the typical findings of a general physical exam in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of body mass index (BMI) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the association between neck circumference and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is the Mallampati score used in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the significance of a history of disruptive snoring in the evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of the patient’s significant other in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What sex-related differences should be considered in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is the mnemonic STOP used in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is the mnemonic BANG used to in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is indicated if the criteria for both the STOP and BANG questionnaires are met in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the accuracy of the STOP-BANG questionnaire for the screening of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What tool is available for preoperative predictions of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which organization released an expert review of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease?

How does obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) lead to cardiovascular disease?

What is the role of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases?

When should obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) be evaluated in patients with cardiovascular disease?

What is the prevalence of systemic hypertension in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How does severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affect the development of hypertension?

What did the Sleep Heart Study reveal about the relationship between hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How does continuous pressure (CPAP) treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affect blood pressure?

How is hypertension managed in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How does decreased CPAP affect BP in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How many hours of CPAP use is required to reduce BP in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of antihypertensive medications in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the association between atherosclerosis and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and congestive heart failure?

What is the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiac arrhythmias?

What is the association between myocardial ischemia and infarction and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the association between stroke and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the association between metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on glucose levels and insulin resistance?

How does oxygen desaturation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) correlate with insulin resistance?

What is the effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on CPR levels?

What is the effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on the production of nitric oxide?

What abnormalities of metabolic syndrome decreased by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and diabetes?

What is the presentation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in elderly patients?

What are the signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children?

What is the standard therapy for children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are complications of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during pregnancy?

What are the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in long-distance truck drivers?

What are other risks associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

DDX

When should narcolepsy be consider in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which indices are commonly used to assess sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services diagnostic criteria for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the AASM diagnostic criteria for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How are sleep centers accredited for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)?

Workup

What are the ACP guidelines for the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What guidelines are available on the use of home sleep testing in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which imaging studies are used to identify the site of obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of routine lab testing in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is respiratory event–related arousal (RERA) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the AASM recommendations for the use of portable monitors for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of polysomnography (PSG) in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What guidelines exist for the use of diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the AASM guidelines for the performance of polysomnography (PSG) to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the definition of obstructive apnea?

What is the definition of central apnea?

What is the definition of mixed apnea?

What is hypopnea in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the importance of arousals in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which polysomnography (PSG) findings are characteristic of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) used in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is split-night polysomnography (PSG) used in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

When should polysomnography (PSG) be repeated in the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the validity of home testing for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the levels of portable monitors for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the efficacy of level 3 portable monitors for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the efficacy of at-home diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the two-stage model to identify obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in primary care?

What are the outcomes for level 3 home testing in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is efficacy of home obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) testing?

How does a disposable skin patch compare to polysomnography (PSG) in the detection of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of sleepiness and alertness measurement in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of the maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) in the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Treatment

What is the basis for treatment selection in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the nonsurgical options for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the benefits of weight reduction in patients with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What increases the risk of relapse of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after surgery?

What are the mechanical measures for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

When are oral appliances (OAs) used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of pharmacologic therapy in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are treatments options for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What should be included in the follow-up of CPAP treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is the concept of the sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) continuum used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is snoring differentiated from CPAP mask leak in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the indications for upper airway (UA) corrective surgery in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the standard of care for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How are continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices used to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How does continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) work in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the treatment recommendations severe sleep-disordered breathing (SDB)?

What are the Medicare criteria for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are auto-titrating devices for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the AASM guidelines for use of auto titrating devices in the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms are resolved with use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)?

What improvements are likely following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which comorbidity risks are decreased following use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are benefits of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea?

How are neurocognitive symptoms managed in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the effects of stopping continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the benefits of using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are indicators of poor adherence of continuous positive adherence for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is compliance with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) measured during treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How many hours of use is needed for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to render a positive effect in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

When are patients considered compliant for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)?

How quickly is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compliance determined in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the significance of long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compliance in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How has continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) been assessed?

What is the effect on compliance of flexible pressure delivery of positive airway pressure (PAP) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the effect of split-night polysomnography (PSG) on CPAP adherence in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are possible reasons for noncompliance with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which interventions are used to improve continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compliance in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the benefits of patient education with sleep specialists for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the benefits of pressure-relief continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which factors are likely to increase adherence to CPAP for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are complications of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are mask-related problems associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are nasal problems associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are patient complaints associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the Medicare and Medicaid coverage for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Positive results from which clinical assessments indicate a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of inspiratory and expiratory pressures in bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

When is bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy indicated for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How does compliances with bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) compare to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How do oral appliances (OAs) work for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How are oral appliances (OAs) designed for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which oral appliance (OA) devices are used for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the AASM guidelines for the use of oral appliances (OAs) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

When is oral appliance (OA) therapy indicated for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is included in oral appliance (OA) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in oral appliance (OA) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which factors influence the benefit of oral appliance (OA) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the contraindications for oral appliance (OA) treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What affect does oral appliance (OA) therapy have on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which biochemical factors are responsible for the effectiveness of oral appliances (OAs) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the effect on the lateral pharyngeal walls from oral appliances (OAs) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the treatment goal for oral appliance (OA) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the key variables in oral appliance (OA) therapy efficacy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of mandibular repositioning in oral appliance (OA) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What were the findings of an AASM review of oral appliance (OA) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How do outcomes with oral appliance (OA) therapy compare with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are benefits of oral appliance (OA) therapy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the difference in efficacy between oral appliance (OA) therapy and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are limitations to the use of oral appliances (OAs) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the benefit of the titration approach in oral appliance (OA) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Why is further work on titration required for oral appliance (OA) therapy of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the adherence rates for oral appliance (OA) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of tongue-retaining devices (TRD) in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the cause for the decline of adherence to oral appliance (OA) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the adverse effects of oral appliance (OA) devices for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How are the adverse effects of oral appliance (OA) devices assessed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How are multiple polysomnography (PSG) studies used in the management of oral device therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Why is long-term follow-up needed for oral appliance (OA) therapy in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the limitations of adherence data for oral appliance (OA) therapy of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are complications oral appliance (OA) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is cost a barrier to oral appliance (OA) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What factors may limit the use of oral appliance (OA) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What does the ASDA advocate regarding the use of oral appliance (OA) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of surgical correction of the upper airway (UA) for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

When is surgical care indicated for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the prerequisites of surgical care for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is required perioperatively to ensure a safe airway during surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Where can additional information on surgery in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) be found?

What are the anatomic considerations for surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the commonly performed surgical procedures for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the indications for the specific surgical procedures for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Who published guidelines for the surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the position of the AASM) on surgical therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the approach to surgery selection for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is phase I surgery for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is phase II surgery for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the most common surgical procedure for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the AASM recommendations for uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the surgical success rate for uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which complications from uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) are particularly significant for singers and musicians?

What are the complications of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is silent apnea in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the disadvantages to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is genioglossus advancement with hyoid myotomy (GAHM) used for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA?)

How is maxillomandibular osteotomy (MMO) used for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is tracheostomy used for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of lasers in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of radiofrequency (RF) energy in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is radiofrequency (RF) energy used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the efficacy of radiofrequency (RF) energy treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of bariatric surgery in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the risks of bariatric surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the AASM guidelines for use of bariatric surgery in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the factors that increase the likelihood of successful surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What factor increases the likelihood of success for surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Where have data been found regarding success rates for surgical therapy of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How does surgery compare to other forms of treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How prevalent is residual EDS following treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What causes suboptimal treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is the etiology of residual EDS in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) determined?

What questions are used to determine if residual sleepiness is idiopathic in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which medications should be considered for the treatment of residual sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How are medications administered in the treatment of residual sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What was the evidence for FDA approval of modafinil for residual sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the efficacy of modafinil for residual sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the effectiveness of modafinil for residual sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the concerns with using modafinil to treat residual sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

When are stimulants indicated in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the prevention measures for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What activity modifications are helpful in the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which specialists should be consulted in the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What monitoring is required for management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the basis for follow-up in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How frequently should patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) be seen if continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective?

How frequently should patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) be seen if continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is not effective?

When are repeat diagnostic procedures indicated for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the difference in treatment adherence between at-home testing and in-lab treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which factors increase the risk of driving in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the precautions against driving for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What should be documented in the follow-up of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the guidelines for reporting patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the laws regarding impaired drivers, including those with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the ATS guidelines on reporting of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to the appropriate state authorities?

When is categorical reporting of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) appropriate?

What does the US Department of Transportation recommend for the driving status of persons with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What does the US Federal Aviation Administration recommend for pilots with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the recommendations of the AASM for use of medications in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which medications in the drug class CNS stimulants are used in the treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)?

Which medications in the drug class Dopamine/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)?