Atelectasis Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 06, 2018
  • Author: Tarun Madappa, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Nader Kamangar, MD, FACP, FCCP, FCCM  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is atelectasis?

What is obstructive atelectasis?

What causes nonobstructive atelectasis?

What is relaxation or passive atelectasis?

What is compression atelectasis?

What is adhesive atelectasis?

What is cicatrization atelectasis?

What is middle lobe syndrome (recurrent atelectasis)?

What is the relationship between middle lobe syndrome (recurrent atelectasis) and primary Sjögren syndrome?

What is rounded atelectasis?

What is the pathophysiology of atelectasis?

What is the pathophysiology of obstructive atelectasis?

What is the pathophysiology of nonobstructive atelectasis?

What is the pathophysiology of adhesive atelectasis?

What is the cause of middle lobe syndrome (recurrent atelectasis)?

What is the pathophysiology of cicatrization atelectasis?

What causes replacement atelectasis?

What is the pathophysiology of platelike atelectasis?

What is the pathophysiology of postoperative atelectasis?

What is the primary cause of atelectasis?

What causes resorptive atelectasis?

What causes relaxation atelectasis?

What causes compression atelectasis?

What causes adhesive atelectasis?

What causes cicatrization atelectasis?

What causes replacement atelectasis?

What is the pathophysiology of right middle lobe syndrome (recurrent atelectasis)?

What causes rounded atelectasis?

What is the prevalence of atelectasis in the US?

What are the racial predilections of atelectasis?

How does the prevalence of atelectasis vary by sex?

What age group is at highest risk for atelectasis?

What is the prognosis of atelectasis?

Where can patient education resources for atelectasis be found?

Presentation

Which procedures increase the risk for postoperative atelectasis?

What is the significance of early postoperative fever in the etiology of atelectasis?

Which factors determine the signs and symptoms of atelectasis?

What are the signs and symptoms of rapid bronchial occlusion in atelectasis?

What are the signs and symptoms of slowly developing atelectasis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of atelectasis?

What are the possible complications of atelectasis?

DDX

Which patients with atelectasis should be evaluated for bronchogenic carcinoma?

How is atelectasis differentiated from pneumothorax?

How is atelectasis differentiated from a massive pleural effusion?

What are the possible areas of medicolegal concern when evaluating atelectasis?

What are the differential diagnoses for Atelectasis?

Workup

What is the role of arterial blood gas in the diagnosis of atelectasis?

How is atelectasis diagnosed in mechanically ventilated patients?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of atelectasis?

What are the indirect signs of atelectasis on imaging?

What are the features of complete atelectasis on radiographs?

What are the imaging features of right upper lobe (RUL) collapse in patients with atelectasis?

What are the imaging features of right middle lobe (RML) collapse in patients with atelectasis?

What are the imaging features of right lower lobe (RLL) collapse in patients with atelectasis?

What are the imaging features of left upper lobe (LUL) collapse in patients with atelectasis?

What are the features of left lower lobe (LLL) collapse in patients with atelectasis?

What are the imaging features of rounded atelectasis?

What is the role of bronchoscopy in the workup of atelectasis?

What is the role of histology in the workup of atelectasis?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for atelectasis?

What is the role of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the management of atelectasis?

What is the role of nonpharmacologic therapies in the treatment of atelectasis?

What is the basis for treatment selection for atelectasis?

How can postoperative atelectasis be prevented?

How is further atelectasis prevented?

What is the role of nasotracheal suctioning in the treatment of atelectasis?

What is the role of antibiotics in the treatment of atelectasis?

How is postoperative atelectasis treated?

How is severe hypoxemia managed in atelectasis?

When are broad-spectrum antibiotics indicated in the treatment of atelectasis?

When is treatment of atelectasis with fiberoptic bronchoscopy indicated?

How is perioperative analgesia used to treat atelectasis?

What is the role of N -acetylcysteine aerosols in the treatment of atelectasis?

What is the role of DNase in the treatment of atelectasis?

What prophylactic measures are used to reduce the incidence and magnitude of postoperative atelectasis?

What is the role of a RTX respirator in the treatment of atelectasis?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of atelectasis?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of atelectasis?

Which medications in the drug class Mucolytic agents are used in the treatment of Atelectasis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Atelectasis?

Which medications in the drug class Bronchodilators are used in the treatment of Atelectasis?