Bronchiectasis Questions & Answers

Updated: Jul 23, 2019
  • Author: Ethan E Emmons, MD; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is bronchiectasis?

What are the signs and symptoms of bronchiectasis?

What are the signs of exacerbation of bronchiectasis?

What are the physical findings of bronchiectasis?

How is bronchiectasis diagnosed?

Which tests are performed to identify underlying etiology of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of vitamin D deficiency in bronchiectasis?

Which pulmonary function tests (PFTs) findings suggest bronchiectasis?

Which radiographic findings are characteristic of bronchiectasis?

Which radiographic findings are specific for bronchiectasis?

Which findings on CT scan suggest bronchiectasis?

What are the treatment options for bronchiectasis?

Which antibiotics are indicated for treatment of mild to moderate bronchiectasis?

Which antibiotics are indicated for treatment of moderate-to-severe bronchiectasis?

What are the American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommendations for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in bronchiectasis?

What are indications for surgical intervention to treat bronchiectasis?

What is bronchiectasis?

What is the presentation of bronchiectasis?

How is bronchiectasis diagnosed?

How is bronchiectasis treated?

What is the pathophysiology of bronchiectasis?

What is the pathophysiology of congenital bronchiectasis?

What is the pathophysiology of acquired bronchiectasis?

What are the pathophysiologic characteristics of bronchiectasis?

What causes bronchiectasis?

What is the role of infection in the etiology of bronchiectasis?

Which organisms may cause bronchiectasis?

What is the etiologic relationship between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and bronchiectasis?

What is Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)?

Which organisms are found most typically in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in bronchiectasis?

What is the role of Pseudomonas species in the etiology of bronchiectasis?

What causes focal postobstructive bronchiectasis?

How can foreign body aspiration cause bronchiectasis?

What is cystic fibrosis (CF)?

What is the prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF) in the US?

How are patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) categorized?

What is the role of cystic fibrosis (CF) in the etiology of bronchiectasis?

What is Young syndrome?

What is the role of Young syndrome in the etiology of bronchiectasis?

What is primary ciliary dyskinesia?

What is the role of primary ciliary dyskinesia in the etiology of bronchiectasis?

What is allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)?

What is the role of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in the etiology of bronchiectasis?

What are the forms of hypogammaglobulinemia in bronchiectasis?

What are the signs of hypogammaglobulinemia in bronchiectasis?

What is the role of HIV in the etiology of bronchiectasis?

Which congenital anatomic defects may cause bronchiectasis?

What is the role of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency in the etiology of bronchiectasis?

Which autoimmune disorders are associated with bronchiectasis?

Which idiopathic inflammatory disorders are associated with bronchiectasis?

Which connective tissue disorders are associated with bronchiectasis?

What is the role of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in the etiology of bronchiectasis?

What is traction bronchiectasis?

What is the role of toxic gas exposure in the etiology of bronchiectasis?

What is the prevalence of bronchiectasis?

What is the prevalence of bronchiectasis in the US?

What is the prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF)-associated bronchiectasis in the US?

Which group is at increased risk of bronchiectasis in the US?

What are the racial predilections for bronchiectasis?

How does the prevalence of bronchiectasis vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of bronchiectasis vary by age?

What is the mortality rate for bronchiectasis?

What are common complications of bronchiectasis?

What are the risk factors for an increased mortality from bronchiectasis?

Where can patient education information be found for bronchiectasis?

Presentation

What are the classic clinical presentation of bronchiectasis?

What is dry bronchiectasis?

What type of diagnosis is bronchiectasis?

A single episode of which severe infections may cause bronchiectasis?

How does chronic wet cough increase the risk for bronchiectasis?

What are the signs and symptoms of exacerbations of bronchiectasis?

How is cough characterized in bronchiectasis?

In addition to cough, what are the signs and symptoms of bronchiectasis?

Which physical findings suggest bronchiectasis?

Which physical findings suggest advanced bronchiectasis?

DDX

Which etiologies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

What are the differential diagnoses for Bronchiectasis?

Workup

How is bronchiectasis diagnosed?

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

How does anatomical distribution bronchiectasis aid in the identification of underlying etiology?

How is sputum analysis used in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

How is the CBC count used in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of quantitative immunoglobulin levels in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of quantitative serum alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of pilocarpine iontophoresis (sweat test) in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of aspergillus precipitins and serum total IgE levels in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of autoimmune screening tests in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

What are the advantages of high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning for the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

Which findings on CT are characteristic of bronchiectasis?

How is radiography used in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

How are pulmonary function tests (PFTs) used in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

What is the most common pulmonary function tests (PFTs) finding in bronchiectasis by?

How is electron microscopic exam used in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of bronchography in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of bronchiectasis?

Treatment

What are the goals of therapy for bronchiectasis?

What are the treatment options for bronchiectasis?

What is the treatment approach to comorbidities of bronchiectasis?

What are the supportive treatments for bronchiectasis?

When is oxygen therapy indicated in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

How should cystic fibrosis (CF) be managed in patients with bronchiectasis?

What is the role of antibiotics in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

How is antibiotic selection determined in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

Which antibiotics are used in the treatment of mild to moderate bronchiectasis?

What is the duration of antibiotic therapy for mild to moderate bronchiectasis?

Which antibiotics used in the treatment of moderate-to-severe bronchiectasis?

What are the ATS recommendations for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in bronchiectasis?

What are antibiotic regimens for ongoing monthly treatment of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of aerosolized antibiotics in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of bronchial hygiene in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

How is mucus clearance performed in patients with bronchiectasis?

What is the role of bronchodilators in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of anti-inflammatory therapy for bronchiectasis?

What is the role of beclomethasone dipropionate in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of inhaled fluticasone in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of azithromycin in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

When is surgery considered in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

What are the indications for surgical intervention of bronchiectasis?

What are the complications of surgical intervention for bronchiectasis?

How does patient selection affect the outcome of surgical intervention for bronchiectasis?

What are the indications for lung transplantation in bronchiectasis?

Which specialists should be consulted for the management of bronchiectasis?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of bronchiectasis?

Guidelines

What are the European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines for etiologic testing of newly diagnosed bronchiectasis?

What are the European Respiratory Society (ERS) recommendations for duration of antibiotic therapy for exacerbations of bronchiectasis?

What are the European Respiratory Society (ERS) treatment guidelines for P aeruginosa infection in bronchiectasis?

What are the European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines for use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with bronchiectasis?

What are the European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines for use of statins in patients with bronchiectasis?

What are the European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines long-term antibiotic treatment regimens for bronchiectasis?

What are the European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines for long-term mucoactive treatment of bronchiectasis?

What are the European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines for use of bronchodilators in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

What are the European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines for surgical interventions for bronchiectasis?

What are the European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines for airway clearance in bronchiectasis?

What are the European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines for pulmonary rehabilitation in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

Medications

What is the role of medication in the treatment of bronchiectasis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Bronchiectasis?

Which medications in the drug class Inhaled Beta Agonist are used in the treatment of Bronchiectasis?

Which medications in the drug class Inhaled Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Bronchiectasis?

Which medications in the drug class Expectorants are used in the treatment of Bronchiectasis?