Emphysema Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 30, 2019
  • Author: Kamran Boka, MD, MS; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is emphysema?

What is the pathophysiology of emphysema?

What is the morphological pathology of emphysema?

What causes emphysema?

What is the US prevalence of emphysema?

What is the global prevalence of emphysema?

What are the sexual predilections of emphysema?

What is the prevalence of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD)?

What is the prognosis of emphysema?

What is the Bode index for prognostication of emphysema?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of emphysema?

Which physical findings are characteristic of emphysema?

DDX

Which condition are included in the differential diagnoses of emphysema?

What are the differential diagnoses for Emphysema?

Workup

How is COPD diagnosed?

How is alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) diagnosed?

When is referral to a pulmonologist indicated for the diagnosis of emphysema?

What is the role of lab tests in the workup of emphysema?

What is the role of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) testing in the workup of emphysema?

What is the role of chest radiographs in the workup of emphysema?

What is the role of CT scans in the workup of emphysema?

What is the role of pulmonary function tests in the workup of emphysema?

How is emphysema staged?

Treatment

How is emphysema treated?

What is the role of smoking cessation interventions in the treatment of emphysema?

What are the components of medical management of emphysema?

What is the role of bronchodilators in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of short-acting bronchodilators in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of long-acting bronchodilators in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) and long-acting muscarinic agonists (LAMA) in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of antibiotics in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of mucolytic agents in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of oxygen therapy in the treatment of emphysema?

How is nocturnal hypoxemia treated in patients with emphysema?

What is the role of vaccinations in the treatment of emphysema?

How is alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) treated?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of emphysema?

What are acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs) and how are they treated?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of bullectomy in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of endobronchial valve placement through bronchoscopy in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of lung transplantation in the treatment of emphysema?

What is the role of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in the treatment of emphysema?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with emphysema?

When is supplemental oxygen indicated during air travel for patients with emphysema?

Guidelines

What are the COPD Foundation Pocket consultant Guide (PCG) recommendations for the treatment of emphysema?

What are the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) treatment guidelines for emphysema?

What are the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) treatment guidelines for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD)?

What are the VA/DoD treatment guidelines for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD)?

What are the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society (ERS/ATS) treatment guidelines for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD)?

What are the British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for the use of pulmonary rehabilitation in emphysema?

Which organizations have issued treatment guidelines for AATD?

What are the Alpha-1 Foundation guidelines for genetic testing for AATD?

What are the Alpha-1 Foundation guidelines for the evaluation and monitoring of AATD?

What are the Alpha-1 Foundation treatment guidelines for AATD?

What are the GINA-GOLD guidelines for differentiating between asthma, COPD, and ASCO?

What are the GINA-GOLD guidelines for the initial treatment of asthma, COPD, and ASCO?

What are the GINA-GOLD guidelines for referral to a pulmonologist in patients with asthma, COPD, and ASCO?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of emphysema?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Emphysema?

Which medications in the drug class Smoking cessation therapies are used in the treatment of Emphysema?

Which medications in the drug class Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Emphysema?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Emphysema?

Which medications in the drug class Bronchodilators are used in the treatment of Emphysema?