Parapneumonic Pleural Effusions and Empyema Thoracis Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 21, 2018
  • Author: Atikun Limsukon, MD; Chief Editor: Nader Kamangar, MD, FACP, FCCP, FCCM  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What are the classifications of parapneumonic pleural effusions?

What are the historical treatments for empyema thoracis?

Are parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis more common in viral or bacterial pneumonia?

Which bacteria cause parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the pathophysiology of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What causes parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What are the risk factors for parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the incidence of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis in the US?

What is the global incidence of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

Do parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis have a racial predilection?

Are parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis more common in males or females?

Do parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis have an age predilection?

What is the prognosis of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the mortality and morbidity of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What are resources for patient education on parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

Presentation

What are the clinical manifestations of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the clinical presentation of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis in patients with aerobic bacterial infection?

What is the clinical presentation of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis in patients with anaerobic bacterial infection?

What are physical exam findings in patients with parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Parapneumonic Pleural Effusions and Empyema Thoracis?

Workup

Which lab studies are indicated in the workup of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What are the chest radiography findings in parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

Which lab test distinguishes exudate and transudate pleural fluid in the workup of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the role of thoracentesis in the workup of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the role of pleural fluid studies in the workup of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the role of microbiology (Gram stain, bacterial culture) in the workup of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the role of pleural fluid cytology in the workup of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What are the histologic findings in parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the classification and treatment scheme for Category 1 (parapneumonic effusion)?

What is the classification and treatment scheme for Category 2 (uncomplicated parapneumonic effusion)?

What is the classification and treatment scheme for Category 3 (complicated parapneumonic effusion)?

What is the classification and treatment scheme for Category 4 (empyema)?

Treatment

What is the initial treatment for parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the recommended treatment for pleural effusions?

What are the risk categories of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

When is drainage recommended in the treatment of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What are the procedures for chest tubes (tube thoracostomy) in the treatment of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the role of intrapleural thrombolytic agents in the management of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

Are intrapleural thrombolytics effective in the treatment of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the role of intrapleural r-TPA in the management of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the role of intrapleural recombinant human DNase in the management of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the role of thoracoscopy in the management of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

Which surgical approach is most effective for the treatment of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

When is open drainage of pleural space indicated in the management of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

Which specialist consultations are indicated in the treatment of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What dietary restrictions are indicated in the treatment of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What activity restrictions are recommended for patients with parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What are the potential complications of parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis treatment?

What are preventive measures for patients with parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

What is the long-term monitoring for patients with parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema thoracis?

Which medications in the drug class Mucolytic Agents are used in the treatment of Parapneumonic Pleural Effusions and Empyema Thoracis?

Which medications in the drug class Fibrinolytic agents are used in the treatment of Parapneumonic Pleural Effusions and Empyema Thoracis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Parapneumonic Pleural Effusions and Empyema Thoracis?