Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia 

Updated: Oct 29, 2020
Author: Jussi J Saukkonen, MD; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP 

Overview

Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a syndrome of fever, cough, and dyspnea, with bibasilar pulmonary infiltrates consisting of dense interstitial accumulations of lymphocytes and plasma cells.

LIP may be associated with autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis, pernicious anemia, autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome, chronic active hepatitis, common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)[1] , Sjögren syndrome,[2, 3] allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, lupus, and lymphoma. Pseudolymphoma represents a localized masslike variant of LIP. Dysproteinemia has been reported in association with LIP.[4, 5]

Granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) is a lymphoproliferative complication of CVID. The histologic diagnosis is defined as pulmonary tissue containing both granulomatous and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP), follicular bronchiolitis, and/or lymphoid hyperplasia.[6] LIP is also associated with infection via human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1,[7, 8, 9] Epstein-Barr virus, and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type 1.

Laboratory test results are nonspecific for LIP. The most essential items in the workup are the chest radiograph, measurement of gas exchange, and histology.

Asymptomatic and physiologically unaffected patients may not require treatment. Symptomatic patients may require supportive care and immunosuppressive agents, chiefly corticosteroids. Occasionally, cytotoxic therapy has been used. Oxygen supplementation may be considered on the basis of blood gas and/or exercise oximetry findings.

For other discussions on pneumonia, see the following:

  • Mycoplasmal Pneumonia

  • Bacterial Pneumonia

  • Viral Pneumonia

  • Pneumocystis Jiroveci Carinii Pneumonia Imaging

  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)

  • Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (Nosocomial Pneumonia) and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

  • Aspiration Pneumonitis and Pneumonia

  • Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia

  • Fungal Pneumonia

  • Pneumonia in Immunocompromised Patients

  • Nursing Home Acquired Pneumonia

  • Chlamydial Pneumonias

  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

  • Typical Bacterial Pneumonia Imaging

  • Atypical Bacterial Pneumonia Imaging

  • Viral Pneumonia Imaging

 

Pathophysiology and Etiology

HIV-related lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) may be part of a continuum of lymphocytic infiltrative disorders, such as pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia in children and radiographically clear lymphocytic alveolitis in adults. Patients positive for HLA-DR5 and HLA-DR6 alleles are predisposed to developing a diffuse visceral lymphocytosis syndrome with LIP. LIP has been reported to occur as part of immune reconstitution syndrome.[10]

LIP may result from an in situ lymphoproliferative response to chronically presented viral antigens or cytokines and/or recruitment of circulating lymphocytes. Mutations of the B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL-6 or zinc finger protein 51) gene have been associated with LIP and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.[11, 12] Viruses (alone or in combination) may be responsible.[13, 14, 15] Potential candidates include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), and HIV-1.

Epstein-Barr virus

DNA from EBV is detected in pediatric LIP lung biopsy specimens when accompanied by evidence of primary or reactivated EBV infection at the time of biopsy. Elevated titers of antibodies directed against EBV have been reported in adult patients with LIP.

HTLV-1

HTLV-1 is associated with a spectrum of pulmonary lymphoproliferative syndromes, including LIP. Serologic and molecular studies have correlated HTLV-1 infection with LIP.

The viral transactivating protein p40Tax activates the genes for interleukin-2 (IL-2) and its receptor’s high-affinity alpha chain. Lymphocyte proliferation driven by IL-2 may cause lymphoproliferative pulmonary lesions related to HTLV-1.

HIV-1

The nef gene product induces an LIP-like syndrome in a transgenic mouse model.

Expression of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IFN-gamma-inducible chemokines IP-10 and Mig is increased in LIP tissues compared with controls.[16] The beta-chemokines RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta, chemotactic for T cells, are increased in pediatric LIP lesions compared with controls.[16]

Infiltrating B cells are polyclonal. Infiltrating T cells in HIV-related LIP are more commonly oligoclonal expansions than in HIV-negative LIP.[17]

BCL-6 mutations in HIV-associated LIP do not show features of immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (IgV[H]) hypermutations, while HIV-negative LIP BCL-6 mutations do. The immune dysregulation of HIV-associated LIP appears to be a different type than in HIV-negative LIP.

Enterovirus D68

A case of Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infection-caused interstitial pneumonia has been reported.[18] EV-D68 infection is associated with upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms such as fever, cough, and wheezing. Radiologic and pathologic evidence of pneumonia without a bacterial etiology suggests that systemic spread of EV-D68 from a respiratory source may be a component in the pathogenesis of subsequent pneumonia.[19]

 

Epidemiology

Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is an uncommon disease. In the United States, however, it is found in 22-75% of pediatric patients with HIV who have pulmonary disease. In contrast, among adult patients with HIV, LIP accounts for only 3% of HIV-related pulmonary pathology. Small series have been reported in Europe, southwestern Japan, Africa, and the Caribbean basin.

Most cases of LIP not associated with HIV occur in the fourth and seventh decades of life, at an average age of 56 years. LIP is common only in children with HIV. In children with HIV infection, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia has been designated an AIDS-defining illness by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[20]

LIP is more common in women when not associated with HIV infection. HIV-associated sicca syndrome occurs most often in males.[21]

LIP has been found in every race and HIV risk group. Whether racial or geographic predispositions are crucial remains unclear. Many reports describe HIV and HTLV-1–associated LIP among individuals of African ancestry.[22] LIP appears to cluster in southwestern Japan, where HTLV-1 is endemic.

 

Prognosis

The clinical course of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is variable. The duration is 1 month to 11 years. It often is stable for months without treatment, and sometimes it improves spontaneously. Symptoms often are recurrent and occasionally may lead to end-stage fibrosis or bronchiectasis.

Mortality and morbidity data are inexact because of the lack of reported follow-up, the anecdotal nature of reports, and the rarity of the disease.

In the population who does not have HIV infection, half the patients improve with treatment but relapse is common. End-stage fibrosis may follow despite treatment. In the past, high mortality was reported in older patients.

Patients with HIV-associated LIP display slower decline in CD4+ T-cell counts and longer survival than individuals who have HIV infection but do not have LIP.[23]

Complications

Bronchiectasis has been associated with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP). Whether this is due to LIP or the frequent bacterial infections these patients experience remains unclear. Bronchitis and pneumonia commonly occur in these patients, with or without bronchiectasis or cystic changes.

Pulmonary fibrosis may be a long-term complication. Generally, it is indolent. Respiratory failure has been reported, especially in the pediatric population.

Malignant transformation to lymphoma or association with lymphoid malignancy has been reported.

 

Patient Education

Instructions to patients with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) should include relating all potential toxicities of corticosteroids, including aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, infections, weight gain, hyperglycemia, and other adverse effects. Patients should be instructed to seek medical attention for increased dyspnea or change in sputum.

 

Presentation

Patient history

Symptoms of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) are gradually progressive, often accompanied by constitutional symptoms such as dyspnea and chronic cough. Fatigue, malaise, weight loss and low-grade fever may also occur. Pleuritic chest pain and hemoptysis are infrequent. Sicca syndrome symptoms may include xerophthalmia and xerostomia.[21]

Physical examination

Manifestations of associated diseases may be present. Physical findings vary in children and adults.

Physical examination findings in children may include the following:

  • Generalized lymphadenopathy

  • Hepatosplenomegaly

  • Parotid enlargement

  • Clubbing

  • Wheezing (occasional)

Physical examination findings in adults may include the following:

  • Generalized lymphadenopathy

  • Rales

  • Hepatosplenomegaly and parotid enlargement: present in approximately one third of adult patients

 

Differential Diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of LIP includes the following:

  • Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

  • Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

  • Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis

  • Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia (PJP)

  • Bacterial Pneumonia

  • Fungal Pneumonia

  • Viral Pneumonia

  • Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema

  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

  • Interstitial (Nonidiopathic) Pulmonary Fibrosis

Other problems to be considered include the following[24, 25, 26] :

  • Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy

  • Benign lymphocytic angiitis

  • Granulomatosis

  • Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis

  • Plasma cell interstitial pneumonitis

  • Interstitial lung disease

 

Laboratory Studies

Laboratory test results are nonspecific for lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP). Serum protein electrophoresis commonly shows polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. In pediatric patients with LIP and HIV, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels may be elevated to 300-500 IU/L, approximately half the levels seen in Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. This measurement is not helpful in adults. Serologic testing for HIV-1, HTLV-1, EBV, and rheumatoid factor should be carried out.

 

Imaging Studies

Chest radiography

Bibasilar interstitial or micronodular infiltrates with coalescence into an alveolar pattern are present in lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) (see the image below).

Chest radiograph of lymphocytic interstitial pneum Chest radiograph of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia in an adult who is HIV positive and has exertional dyspnea, demonstrating characteristic fine bibasilar interstitial markings

In adults, honeycombing is present in up to one third of cases. Hilar adenopathy and pleural effusion are uncommon. Similar infiltrates are seen in children, often with mediastinal widening and hilar enlargement denoting pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia.

Computed tomography

Computed tomography (CT) scanning can distinguish LIP from other diffuse pulmonary diseases and reveal the extent of the disease. CT scanning demonstrates the degree of fibrosis and may demonstrate bronchiectasis. Cyst characteristics, ground-glass attenuation, poorly defined centrilobular nodules, and focal consolidations are associated with LIP.[27, 28, 29]

Findings may be used to follow disease progression. Long-term follow-up may show the development of fibrosis, bronchiectasis, micronodules, bullae, and/or cystic changes.[30, 31]

 

Other Tests

Arterial blood gas measurement

Arterial blood gas measurement may be helpful in assessing the severity of illness, but the findings are nonspecific.

Partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) measurement is normal. Profound hypoxemia and/or an increased alveolar to arterial (A-a) oxygen gradient is present. Pulse oximetry is used for screening, but it may not detect an A-a gradient. It should be checked at rest and following exercise. See the A-a Gradient calculator.

Pulmonary function testing

Pulmonary function testing usually demonstrates restriction with a reduced or normal diffusion capacity. Obstructive airway disease has been reported occasionally.

 

Biopsy and Histologic Findings

Generally, bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy is diagnostic if multiple biopsies are obtained from several affected subsegments. Exact sensitivity and specificity of transbronchial biopsy is not reported.

Open lung biopsy is the criterion standard. It may be required in the face of nonspecific or equivocal findings, as with extensive fibrosis.

Histology shows alveolar septal and intra-alveolar infiltration by small, mature, noncleaved polyclonal lymphocytes and plasma cells. Lymphoid follicles or micronodules also may be present. No intrapulmonary lymphadenopathy, vasculitis, or necrosis is observed. Extensive areas of interstitial fibrosis may be present. Noncaseating granulomata have been reported.

 

Treatment and Management

Asymptomatic and physiologically unaffected patients may not require treatment. Symptomatic patients may require supportive care and immunosuppressive treatment, chiefly corticosteroids. Occasionally, cytotoxic therapy has been used. No controlled treatment trials have been reported.[32]

Consultation with a pulmonologist or thoracic surgeon may be necessary to obtain transbronchial biopsy or open lung biopsy, respectively. In cases associated with HIV infection, consultation with a specialist familiar with HIV care is recommended.

In pediatric patients with HIV, empiric treatment for lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) often is initiated based on the findings of subacute dyspnea, mild hypoxemia, and clubbing.

Medications should be used in patients who are symptomatic or physiologically compromised.

Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids are used if the patient is symptomatic and/or has physiologic compromise due to LIP. Risks of infection, osteoporosis, hyperglycemia, weight gain, dermatologic changes, and other potential toxicities should be weighed against any potential benefit.

After the first month of therapy and if disease activity allows it, gradually taper the prednisone dosage. Use the lowest possible dose to suppress this chronic interstitial pneumonitis. Monitor the patient for signs of infection and other toxicities of corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy.

Immunoglobulin therapy

One report describes dramatic improvement in LIP associated with common variable immunodeficiency treated with intravenous immunoglobulin without steroids.[33]

Immunosuppressive drugs and alkylating agents

The most widely used second-line treatment options are azathioprine, cyclosporine A and cyclophosphamide.[34]

Alkylating agents should be considered only in cases clearly unresponsive to corticosteroids used in high dosage. These agents should only be prescribed by physicians familiar with usage and toxicities. They are generally prescribed for several weeks at a time; disease manifestations and complete blood count should be monitored.

A retrospective chart review of patients with CVID and GLILD found that combination chemotherapy with rituximab and azathioprine resulted in significant improvement in pulmonary function and radiographic lung abnormalities. Comparison of pre- and post-treatment HRCT scans of the chest identified improvements in total score (P=0.018), presence of pulmonary consolidations (P=0.041), ground-glass opacities (P=0.020), nodular opacities (P=0.024), and both the presence and extent of bronchial wall thickening (P=0.014, 0.026 respectively).[6]

Other agents

Antibiotics are used for associated pulmonary infections.

LIP has been reported to improve with the use of zidovudine alone. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may result in improvement or resolution of LIP in some instances.[10]

Bronchodilators may be used for associated wheezing.

Oxygen supplementation

Activity may be limited by exercise-induced oxygen desaturation. Perform exercise oximetry to determine if supplementary oxygen is needed. Consider oxygen supplementation based on blood gas and/or exercise oximetry findings.

 

Long-term monitoring

Periodically perform pulse oximetry at rest and with exercise. Encourage consistent use of a standardized exercise course, such as a long corridor or several flights of steps.

Obtain periodic chest radiographs and/or chest CT scans, which are used for the following purposes:

  • To assess for improvement on therapy

  • To help detect exacerbation of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia or other pulmonary pathology, notably infections

  • To assess for residual fibrosis

Make every attempt to determine if remaining respiratory compromise is related to pulmonary fibrosis or some other pulmonary pathology.

Obtain clinical reevaluation, radiography, and/or chest CT scan if the patient continues to require high-dose steroids. A change in sputum may be the only sign of infection.