Sarcoidosis Questions & Answers

Updated: Jun 20, 2019
  • Author: Nader Kamangar, MD, FACP, FCCP, FCCM; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is sarcoidosis?

What is the presentation of sarcoidosis?

What pulmonary findings suggest sarcoidosis?

What are the dermatologic manifestations of sarcoidosis?

What are the ocular manifestations of sarcoidosis?

What are the less common manifestations of sarcoidosis?

What imaging studies are performed in the workup of sarcoidosis?

How is sarcoidosis staged?

What is the role of pulmonary function and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity testing in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What is the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What testing should be done annually for patients with sarcoidosis?

How is sarcoidosis diagnosed?

What is the role of routine lab testing in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What is the indication for NSAIDS in the management of sarcoidosis?

What is the treatment of sarcoidosis in patients with pulmonary involvement?

What is the treatment of extrapulmonary and pulmonary sarcoidosis?

What are indications for noncorticosteroid treatment of sarcoidosis?

What noncorticosteroid agents are used in the treatment of sarcoidosis?

When is lung transplantation indicated in the treatment of sarcoidosis?

What is sarcoidosis?

What is the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis?

Which antigen levels are higher in patients with sarcoidosis?

What is the role of plasmatic hypergammaglobulinemia in the pathophysiology of sarcoidosis?

What is the role of glycoprotein KL-6 and surfactant protein D (SP-D) in the pathophysiology of pulmonary sarcoidosis?

What is the role of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis?

What causes sarcoidosis?

What is the incidence of sarcoidosis in the US?

What is the global incidence of sarcoidosis?

Is sarcoidosis more common in males or females?

How does the incidence of sarcoidosis vary among age groups?

What is the prognosis of sarcoidosis?

What are the causes of mortality in sarcoidosis?

What is the incidence of functional impairment in patients with sarcoidosis?

What is the likelihood of regression for pulmonary disease in sarcoidosis?

What is the underlying cause of sarcoidosis-related mortality in the US?

Presentation

What are the symptoms of Löfgren syndrome in patients with sarcoidosis?

What are the variable presentations of sarcoidosis?

What are pulmonary findings suggestive of sarcoidosis?

How is sarcoidosis staged?

How common are intraocular inflammatory signs in patients with sarcoidosis?

Which findings are diagnostic for ocular sarcoidosis?

What are the IWOS diagnostic criteria for ocular sarcoidosis?

What are the 7 signs of intraocular sarcoidosis?

What is the possible outcome of untreated ocular sarcoidosis?

What are the cardiac symptoms of sarcoidosis?

What is the role of cardiac MRI in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis?

How common is the finding of noncaseating granulomas (NCGs) in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis?

What are the neurologic symptoms of sarcoidosis?

What are the endocrine manifestations of sarcoidosis?

What are the possible psychiatric comorbidities of sarcoidosis?

Which disorder is known to reactivate sarcoidosis?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Sarcoidosis?

Workup

What is the role of serum markers in the workup of sarcoidosis?

How common are hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria in patients with sarcoidosis?

What is the significance of elevated serum 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with sarcoidosis?

Which lab finding suggests hepatic involvement in sarcoidosis?

What is the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) measurement in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What is the significance of a finding of air trapping in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What is the role of FDG-PET scanning in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What is the role of gallium scanning in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What is the role of pulmonary function and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity testing in the workup of sarcoidosis?

Which patients with sarcoidosis have an increased risk for pulmonary hypertension?

What is the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What is the role of the heart rate recovery index in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What is the ATS recommendation for ECG screening in patients with sarcoidosis?

Which procedure is performed in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What is the role of transbronchial biopsy in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What is the role of endobronchial biopsy in the workup of sarcoidosis?

What is the diagnostic yield of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for sarcoidosis?

What is the role of induced sputum analysis in the workup of sarcoidosis?

Which histologic findings support a diagnosis of sarcoidosis?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for sarcoidosis?

What is the mainstay of therapy for sarcoidosis?

How is steroid therapy administered in the treatment of sarcoidosis?

What is the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of sarcoidosis?

How are inhaled corticosteroids used in the treatment of sarcoidosis?

What is the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of sarcoidosis?

How effective is longer-term corticosteroid treatment vs short-burst therapy?

When is nonsteroidal therapy indicated in the treatment of sarcoidosis?

Which nonsteroidal agents are used in the treatment of sarcoidosis?

What is the role of infliximab in the treatment of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis?

What is the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–inhibitor therapy in the treatment of sarcoidosis?

What are the indications for nontreatment in sarcoidosis?

Which treatment approach is effective in minimizing the use of corticosteroids in patients with sarcoidosis?

What are the indications for medical intervention in extrapulmonary sarcoidosis?

What is the treatment for ocular sarcoidosis?

What is the role of lung transplantation in the treatment of sarcoidosis?

What monitoring is needed for patients with sarcoidosis?

Medications

What are the goals of pharmacotherapy for sarcoidosis?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressants are used in the treatment of Sarcoidosis?

Which medications in the drug class Antimalarial agents are used in the treatment of Sarcoidosis?

Which medications in the drug class Antimetabolites are used in the treatment of Sarcoidosis?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Sarcoidosis?

Which medications in the drug class Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used in the treatment of Sarcoidosis?