Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis Clinical Presentation

Updated: Dec 31, 2015
  • Author: Eloise M Harman, MD; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP  more...
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Presentation

History

RRP is a rare disease, and adult patients may have symptoms for months or longer before the disease is recognized. Because the larynx is the most frequently affected site for both JORRP and AORRP, symptoms of upper airway obstruction predominate. Upper airway obstruction may be life threatening and may be the presenting symptom. Hoarseness is the most common presenting symptom. Other symptoms include the following:

  • Voice change

  • Choking episodes

  • Foreign body sensation in the throat

  • Cough

  • Dyspnea

  • Inspiratory wheeze

  • Stridor

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Physical

Physical findings often are nonspecific. Voice change may be noted. Inspiratory wheezing, stridor, or both may develop over the trachea or the upper thorax.

Patients with JORRP commonly present with a weak cry, episodes of choking, hoarseness, or failure to thrive. Patients with AORRP present with hoarseness, choking spells, voice change, dyspnea, or a foreign body sensation in the throat.

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Causes

HPV causes RRP. HPV-6 and HPV-11 are the most common types associated with RRP, but, rarely, affected tissues contain HPV-16 and HPV-18. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States; as many as 75% of women have genital HPV at some time in their lives. Thirty to 60% of mothers of children affected with JORRP have genital HPV, compared with 5% of mothers of unaffected children. A study using questionnaires of affected children or their parents (identified through the RRP Foundation) verified that the 3 risk factors for JORRP are (1) firstborn child, (2) vaginal delivery, and (3) mother younger than 20 years. The risk factors for JORRP do not apply to adult-onset cases. This suggests that adult disease does not represent reactivation of latent disease. The mode of transmission of HPV in AORRP is not known. Child-to-parent transmission by cough has never been documented. Sexual transmission is likely.

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