Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes Questions & Answers

Updated: Sep 21, 2018
  • Author: Kendra Becker, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is the pathophysiology of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is the role of ventilatory instability in the pathophysiology of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is the behavior of central sleep apnea (CSA) in patients with heart failure?

What is the role of the brainstem respiratory centers in the pathophysiology of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is the role of obstruction in the pathophysiology of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is Cheyne Stokes breathing-central sleep apnea (CSB-CSA)?

Which medial conditions are associated with central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is high-altitude periodic breathing?

What is the role of CNS depressants in the etiology of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What causes primary central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What causes complex sleep apnea?

What causes central sleep apnea (CSA) during sleep-wake transition?

What causes postarousal central apnea or postsigh central apnea?

What is the prevalence of central sleep apnea (CSA) in the US?

What is the racial predilection of central sleep apnea (CSA) syndromes?

What is the sexual predilection of central sleep apnea (CSA) syndromes?

How does the prevalence of central sleep apnea (CSA) syndromes vary by age?

What is the prognosis of central sleep apnea (CSA) syndromes?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

DDX

How are central sleep apnea (CSA) syndromes differentiated from other sleep disorders?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of central sleep apnea (CSA) syndromes?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of central sleep apnea (CSA) syndromes?

What are the ACP diagnostic guidelines for central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is the role of polysomnography in the diagnosis of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

How is central sleep apnea (CSA) differentiated from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of home monitoring in the workup of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is the role of echocardiography in the workup of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

Treatment

How is central sleep apnea (CSA) treated?

What is the role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the treatment of central sleep apnea (CSA) syndromes?

What is the role of bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) in the treatment of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is the role of inhaled carbon dioxide in the treatment of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is the role of adaptive servo ventilation (ASV) in the treatment of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is the role of supplemental oxygen in the treatment of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is the role of overdrive atrial pacing in the treatment of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

What is the role of implantable devices in the treatment of central sleep apnea (CSA)?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of central sleep apnea (CSA) syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Phosphodiesterase inhibitor are used in the treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Nonbenzodiazepine sedative hypnotic are used in the treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Benzodiazepines are used in the treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor are used in the treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes?