Kugelberg Welander Spinal Muscular Atrophy Questions & Answers

Updated: Jan 16, 2019
  • Author: Joyce L Oleszek, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen Kishner, MD, MHA  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs)?

How are spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) classified?

What is the pathophysiology of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)?

What is the pathophysiology of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

What is the prevalence of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in the US?

What is the global prevalence of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)?

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

Which cardiovascular disorders are associated with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)?

What are the racial predilections of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)?

What are the sexual predilections of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

What causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Kugelberg Welander Spinal Muscular Atrophy?

Workup

What is the role of lab tests in the workup of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

What is the role of EMG and NCS in the workup of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

What is the role of muscle biopsy in the workup of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

Treatment

How are spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) treated?

What is the role of physical therapy (PT) in the treatment of spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs)?

Why are manual wheelchairs preferred over electric wheelchairs in the management of spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs)?

What is the role of occupational therapy (OT) in the treatment of spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs)?

What is the role of speech therapy in the treatment of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

What are the possible complications of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

Follow-up

What is included in the long-term monitoring of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy (mild SMA)?

What is the prognosis of Kugelberg Welander spinal muscular atrophy?