Post Head Injury Endocrine Complications Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Feb 12, 2016
  • Author: Milton J Klein, DO, MBA; Chief Editor: Consuelo T Lorenzo, MD  more...
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DDx

Diagnostic Considerations

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)

Diabetes insipidus

Cerebral salt wasting

Postneurosurgery

Tumor

SIADH can be induced by medications (eg, carbamazepine, major tranquilizers, antidepressants).

Phenytoin and chlorpromazine inhibit the release of ADH.

Lithium may block the action of ADH peripherally at the kidney.

Diabetes insipidus (DI)

Hypothalamic (post-TBI) versus peripheral (nephrogenic) DI

Familial - X-linked recessive or autosomal dominant DI

Acquired DI - TBI, postneurosurgery, tumors, granulomatous, infections, vascular disorders, circulating antibodies to vasopressin, autoimmunity, and idiopathic

Cerebral salt wasting

Hypothalamic/nephrogenic DI

SIADH

Primary adrenal insufficiency

Anterior hypopituitarism

Postneurosurgery

Tumors

Vascular (postpartum)

Infections

Granulomatous disease

Idiopathic

Primary adrenal insufficiency

Autoimmune (idiopathic adrenalitis)

Tuberculosis

Sarcoidosis

Malignancy

Acute sepsis (including systemic fungal infections)

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome