Cryoglobulinemia Questions & Answers

Updated: Jan 09, 2019
  • Author: Colin C Edgerton, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are cryoglobulins?

What is cryoglobulinemia?

What is the Brouet classification of cryoglobulinemia?

How is cryoglobulinemia classified based on etiology?

What are the most common symptoms of type I cryoglobulinemia?

What is the pathophysiology of cryoglobulinemia?

What is the role of immune-complex disease in the pathogenesis of cryoglobulinemia?

What is the pathophysiology of type I cryoglobulinemia?

What is the pathophysiology of types II and III cryoglobulinemia?

What is the role of resultant aggregates in the pathophysiology of cryoglobulinemia?

What is the prevalence of cryoglobulinemia in the US?

What are the reported frequencies of the different types of cryoglobulinemia in the US?

What is the global prevalence of cryoglobulinemia?

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with cryoglobulinemia?

How does renal disease affect mortality in cryoglobulinemia?

What is the prevalence of lymphoproliferative disease in cryoglobulinemia?

How does the prevalence of cryoglobulinemia vary by sex and age?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of type I cryoglobulinemia?

What are the signs and symptoms of types II and III cryoglobulinemia?

What are the characteristics of dependent area lesions in cryoglobulinemia?

What are the characteristics of nondependent area lesions in cryoglobulinemia?

What are the musculoskeletal symptoms of cryoglobulinemia?

What are the renal symptoms of cryoglobulinemia?

What are the pulmonary symptoms of cryoglobulinemia?

What is the prevalence of neuropathy in cryoglobulinemia?

What are less common symptoms of cryoglobulinemia?

Which skin exam findings are characteristic of cryoglobulinemia?

Which pulmonary findings are characteristic of cryoglobulinemia?

Which GI findings are characteristic of cryoglobulinemia?

Which renal findings are characteristic of cryoglobulinemia?

Which joint findings are characteristic of cryoglobulinemia?

Which nervous system findings are characteristic of cryoglobulinemia?

Which systemic finding is characteristic of cryoglobulinemia?

What are possible etiologies of cryoglobulinemia by type?

What is the role of infection in the etiology of cryoglobulinemia?

Which disorders may cause cryoglobulinemia?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Cryoglobulinemia?

Workup

How should blood be collected for testing in the workup of cryoglobulinemia?

How are serum samples tested in the workup of cryoglobulinemia?

Which lab findings suggest cryoglobulinemia?

Which lab studies may be considered in the workup of cryoglobulinemia?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of cryoglobulinemia?

What are the indications for procedures in the workup of cryoglobulinemia?

Which histologic findings of the skin are characteristic of cryoglobulinemia?

What are the histologic findings of the organs are characteristic of cryoglobulinemia?

Which histologic findings suggest cryoglobulinemia?

Treatment

What is the focus of treatment for cryoglobulinemia?

What are the treatment options for asymptomatic cryoglobulinemia?

What is the treatment options for secondary cryoglobulinemia?

What is the role of NSAIDs in the treatment of cryoglobulinemia?

What is the role of immunosuppressive medications in the treatment of cryoglobulinemia?

What is the role of plasmapheresis in the treatment of cryoglobulinemia?

What is the role of combination therapy in the treatment of cryoglobulinemia?

What is the role of antiviral drugs in the treatment of cryoglobulinemia?

What is the role of rituximab in the treatment of cryoglobulinemia?

What are treatment options for cryoglobulinemic vasculitis?

Which specialist consultations are needed for the treatment of cryoglobulinemia?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of cryoglobulinemia?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic agents are used in the treatment of Cryoglobulinemia?

Which medications in the drug class Antiviral Agent, Oral are used in the treatment of Cryoglobulinemia?

Which medications in the drug class Antiviral agents are used in the treatment of Cryoglobulinemia?

Which medications in the drug class Interferons are used in the treatment of Cryoglobulinemia?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressive agents are used in the treatment of Cryoglobulinemia?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Cryoglobulinemia?

Which medications in the drug class Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used in the treatment of Cryoglobulinemia?

Follow-up

When is outpatient care indicated for cryoglobulinemia?

When is inpatient care indicated for the treatment of cryoglobulinemia?

Which medications are used in the treatment of cryoglobulinemia?

When is transfer indicated for treatment of cryoglobulinemia?

What are possible complications of cryoglobulinemia?

What is the prognosis of cryoglobulinemia?

What should be included in the patient education for cryoglobulinemia?