Lupus Nephritis Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 04, 2019
  • Author: Lawrence H Brent, MD; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is lupus nephritis?

What are the signs and symptoms of lupus nephritis?

What is the presentation of asymptomatic lupus nephritis?

What is the presentation of active lupus nephritis?

What are the physical findings suggestive of lupus nephritis?

Which lab tests are performed in the evaluation of lupus nephritis?

When is renal biopsy indicated in the evaluation of lupus nephritis?

How is lupus nephritis staged?

What is the principal goal of therapy in lupus nephritis?

What are the American College of Rheumatology treatment guidelines for lupus nephritis?

How is class V lupus nephritis treated?

What are investigational therapies for lupus nephritis?

What is the role of dialysis in the management of lupus nephritis?

What is lupus nephritis?

What is the principal goal of therapy in lupus nephritis?

What is the role of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis?

Which factors affect the development of histologic type of lupus nephritis?

What is the role of glomerular thrombosis in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis?

Which Fc?R genes play a role in the etiology of lupus nephritis?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of lupus nephritis?

What is the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes in the etiology of lupus nephritis?

Which complement genes have an etiologic role in lupus nephritis?

What genes play a role in the etiology of lupus nephritis?

What is the role of immunologic factors in the etiology of lupus nephritis?

What is the prevalence of lupus nephritis?

How does the prevalence of lupus nephritis vary by age?

How does the incidence of lupus nephritis vary by sex?

What are the racial predilections for lupus nephritis?

Why has the prognosis of lupus nephritis improved over the years?

What is the morbidity associated with lupus nephritis?

What is the prognosis of nephrotic syndrome in lupus nephritis?

What is the prognosis of global or segmental diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis?

Which therapeutic agents increase the risk of infection in lupus nephritis?

Presentation

What is the clinical history characteristic of lupus nephritis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of lupus nephritis?

DDX

What are diagnostic considerations for lupus nephritis?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis of lupus nephritis?

What are the differential diagnoses for Lupus Nephritis?

Workup

How is lupus nephritis staged?

Which lab tests are used to evaluate renal function in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with suspected lupus nephritis?

What is the optimal biomarker panel in the assessment of active lupus nephritis in children?

How is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease activity assessed in lupus nephritis?

What is the role of renal biopsy in the workup of lupus nephritis?

What is the ISN/RPS classification of lupus nephritis?

Treatment

What is the principal goal of therapy in lupus nephritis?

What is the role of corticosteroid therapy for lupus nephritis?

What is the role of calcineurin inhibitors in the treatment of lupus nephritis?

How is hypertension managed in patients with lupus nephritis?

What is the role of calcium supplementation in the treatment of lupus nephritis?

Which drugs should be avoided by patients with lupus nephritis?

What is the approach to treatment of active lupus nephritis in women planning pregnancy?

Which patients with lupus nephritis are unlikely to respond to aggressive therapy?

What are the American College of Rheumatology guidelines for managing lupus nephritis?

What are the European League Against Rheumatism and European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (EULAR/ERA-EDTA treatment guidelines for lupus nephritis?

What are the treatment options for classes I and II lupus nephritis?

What are the treatment options for classes III and IV lupus nephritis?

What is the role of cyclophosphamide in the treatment of lupus nephritis?

What is the efficacy of cyclophosphamide in the treatment of lupus nephritis?

What are the treatment options for class V lupus nephritis?

Which anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies are used in the treatment of lupus nephritis?

What is the role of rituximab in the treatment of lupus nephritis?

What is the role of belimumab (Benlysta) in the treatment of lupus nephritis?

What is the role of voclosporin in the treatment of lupus nephritis?

What is the role of atacicept in the treatment of lupus nephritis?

What is the role of abetimus in the treatment of lupus nephritis?

What is the role of anticytokine therapies in the treatment of lupus nephritis?

How is end-stage renal disease (ESRD) managed in lupus nephritis?

When is renal transplantation indicated in the treatment of lupus nephritis?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial for the treatment of lupus nephritis?

Guidelines

Which organization has published guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of childhood-onset lupus nephritis?

What are the diagnostic recommendations from the Single Hub and Access point for pediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) for lupus nephritis?

What are the Single Hub and Access point for pediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) guidelines recommended goals for treatment of lupus nephritis?

What are the Single Hub and Access point for pediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) treatment guidelines for lupus nephritis?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of lupus nephritis?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressives are used in the treatment of Lupus Nephritis?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Lupus Nephritis?