Osteoarthritis Questions & Answers

Updated: Feb 07, 2020
  • Author: Carlos J Lozada, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hand?

How is osteoarthritis (OA) diagnosed?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which arthrocentesis findings are characteristic of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the nonpharmacologic treatment options for osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recommendations for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hand?

What are the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recommendations for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee?

What are the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recommendations for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee?

Which surgical procedures may be used in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the causes of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is secondary osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is primary osteoarthritis (OA)?

How is osteoarthritis (OA) diagnosed?

What are the nonpharmacologic interventions for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the pharmacologic therapy options for osteoarthritis (OA)?

When should NSAIDS be considered in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the economic burden of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the functional classifications of joint movement in osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the structural classifications of joint movement in osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the anatomy of synovial joints involved in osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the importance of synovial fluid in osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which inflammatory molecules are associated with osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the pathogenesis of early osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the pathogenesis of disease progression in osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of joint space loss in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of eburnation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA)?

How do cysts form in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What causes osteophytes to form during the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which neuromuscular abnormalities may result from osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which mechanisms are responsible for the perception of pain in osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) in the lumbar spine?

How does osteoarthritis (OA) develop?

What are the risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of aging in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of obesity in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of trauma or surgery in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of muscle dysfunction in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of valgus malalignment in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which genes may be involved in the etiology of osteoarthritis?

What is the role of signaling cascades in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which genes have genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified as having an etiologic role in osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the importance of genetic factors in osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of genetic testing in patients with osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) in the US?

What is the global prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA)?

How does the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) vary by age?

How does the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) vary among racial groups?

What is the prognosis of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which factors are associated with more rapid progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the prognosis of osteoarthritis in patients who have undergone joint replacement?

What information about osteoarthritis (OA) should patients receive?

Presentation

How is the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) characterized?

What is the presentation of early stage osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the initial signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which physical findings suggest osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which physical findings suggest hand osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the three stages of osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis?

What is the role of grading systems in the management of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which diseases are categorized as subsets of primary osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the classifications of hand osteoarthritis (OA)?

DDX

What is the initial diagnostic goal of the evaluation for osteoarthritis (OA)?

How is rheumatoid arthritis (RA) differentiated from osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which lab tests are used to differentiate rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from osteoarthritis (OA)?

How is spondyloarthropathy differentiated from osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which medical conditions may cause secondary osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which disorders should be included in the differential diagnoses of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Osteoarthritis?

Workup

How is osteoarthritis (OA) diagnosed?

What are biomarkers for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis?

What is the role of lab testing in the evaluation of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of radiography in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which radiographic findings are characteristic of osteoarthritis (OA of the elbow?

What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of CT scanning in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of bone scanning in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of arthrocentesis in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Treatment

What are the goals of osteoarthritis (OA) treatment?

What are the nonpharmacologic treatment options for osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of a physiatrist in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which analgesics are most effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the risks and benefits of acetaminophen for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the possible adverse effects of NSAIDs for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the efficacy of topical diclofenac for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

How do NSAIDs affect blood pressure and kidney function when used for treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the initial treatment of mild or moderate osteoarthritic pain?

What is the treatment regimen for osteoarthritis (OA) with intermittent symptoms?

What is the role of topical NSAIDs in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the treatment options for highly resistant osteoarthritic pain?

Is hydroxychloroquine effective at relieving synovitis in patients with hand osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of duloxetine in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of intra-articular pharmacologic therapy for osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of synovial fluid aspiration in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of steroid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritic knee pain?

What is the role of Zilretta in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of corticosteroid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip?

What are the limitations of steroid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which intra-articular hyaluronic acids (HAs) have FDA approval for the treatment of osteoarthritic knee pain?

What are sources of hyaluronic acids (HAs) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which intra-articular hyaluronic acids (HAs) are safe for repeat treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the mechanism of action of hyaluronic acids (HAs) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the possible adverse effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the efficacy of prolotherapy for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of muscle relaxants in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of chondroprotective drugs in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of anti- nerve growth factor (NGF) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of lifestyle modification in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the short-term and long-term benefits of physical therapy for osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which lifestyle modifications may reduce or relieve pain and stress in patients with osteoarthritis (OA)?

How is exercise beneficial in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Why are stretching exercises useful in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the difference in outcome between non-weight bearing and weight-bearing exercises for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the difference in outcome between home-based strength and home-based balance training for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of aerobic conditioning for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

How can adherence to home-based exercise treatment be increased in patients with osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the efficacy of tai chi in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are assistive devices used in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the ACR conditional recommendations for the use of assistive devices in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hand?

What are the ACR recommendations for use of assistive devices in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee?

What is the role of occupational and physical therapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of pulsed short-wave treatment for osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the guidelines for the use of acupuncture to treat osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of arthroscopy in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

When is arthroscopy indicated for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What postoperative therapy is required following treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) with arthroscopy?

What is the indication for osteotomy in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the efficacy of osteotomy for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the contraindications for osteotomy for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What postoperative therapy is required following osteotomy for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of arthroplasty in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the indication for arthroplasty in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are possible postoperative complications of arthroplasty for osteoarthritis (OA)?

What postoperative therapy is required following arthroplasty for osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of fusion in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the role of joint lavage in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

How is osteoarthritis (OA) prevented?

What is the role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

How are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) harvested for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What is the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Guidelines

Which organizations have issued guidelines on the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the ACR/Arthritis Foundation treatment recommendations for osteoarthritis (OA) of the hand?

What are the guidelines on nonpharmacologic treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the AAOS recommendations for lifestyle modifications for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the guideline recommendations on the use of acupuncture for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the guidelines on pharmacologic treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the ACR/Arthritis Foundation recommendations on pharmacotherapy for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis?

What are the AAOS guidelines for total knee arthroplasty in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the OARSI recommendations for the treatment of hip OA?

What are the AAOS recommendations for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the ACR/Arthritis Foundation recommendations for nonpharmacologic treatment of hip osteoarthritis (OA)?

What are the ACR/Arthritis Foundation recommendations for pharmacologic treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip?

Which treatments does the ACR/Arthritis Foundation recommend against for osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which medications are used in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA)?

Which medications in the drug class Antirrheumatic, Miscellaneous are used in the treatment of Osteoarthritis?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Osteoarthritis?

Which medications in the drug class Opioid Analgesics are used in the treatment of Osteoarthritis?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesic, Topical are used in the treatment of Osteoarthritis?

Which medications in the drug class Antidepressants, SNRIs are used in the treatment of Osteoarthritis?

Which medications in the drug class Calcium Channel Blocker/COX-2 Inhibitor Combination are used in the treatment of Osteoarthritis?

Which medications in the drug class Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are used in the treatment of Osteoarthritis?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesics, Other are used in the treatment of Osteoarthritis?

Which medications in the drug class Skeletal muscle relaxants are used in the treatment of Osteoarthritis?